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当前位置: 考研英语 > 考研阅读 > 2019考研英语阅读:三正一误的判断、推理和引申题
2019考研英语阅读:三正一误的判断、推理和引申题
来源:网络 | 2018-09-05 16:25:07
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  众所周知,阅读是考研英语中最重要的一个题型,四篇阅读理解占到了该科目总分的40%,因此才有了“得阅读者得天下”的说法。本文分享“2019考研英语阅读:三正一误的判断、推理和引申题”相关内容,一起来看看吧。
 
  三正一误
 
  三正一误题型要求考生判断哪一个选项与文章不符。检验答案时有两种方式,一是正确选项所给的信息在文中根本没有提到过,二是正确选项所给信息与文中其他内容相互冲突。
 
  1996年第56题:
 
  With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporation’s news coverage, as well as listening to it.
 
  And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in to two BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio stations. They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs, education, religion, parliamentary coverage, children’s programmes and films for an annual license fee of £83 per household.
 
  It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 years—yet the BBC's future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publicly-funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmes are now the subject of a nation-wide debate in Britain.
 
  The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC—including ordinary listeners and viewers—to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBC’s royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organization as it is, or to make changes.
 
  Defenders of the Corporation—of whom there are many—are fond of quoting the American slogan “If it ain’t broken, don't fix it.” The BBC “ain’t broke”, they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word ‘broke’, meaning having no money), so why bother to change it?
 
  Yet the BBC will have to change, because the broadcasting world around it is changing. The commercial TV channels—TV and Channel 4—were required by the Thatcher Government’s Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the arrival of new satellite channels—funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers’ subscriptions—which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.
 
  In the passage, which of the following about the BBC is not mentioned as the key issue?
 
  [A] Extension of its TV service to Far East.
 
  [B] Programmes as the subject of a nation-wide debate.
 
  [C] Potentials for further international co- operations.
 
  [D] Its existence as a broadcasting organization.
 
  下列哪一项BBC没有作为一个关键问题提及?
 
  这是一个标准的三正一误推理引申题。正确答案:C。
 
  由历年考研英语真题可知,阅读理解部分的试题中,大多数是针对段落的细节设计的,其目的是为了测试考生对组成段落的主体部分的理解。在每年的考试中,细节题的数量是最多的,大约占50%,其中涉及对文章中复杂句、列举、例证、引用、转折、因果关系等的处理,因此做好这类题至关重要。
 
  另外,细节题的测试在另一方面也可以考察考生对段落结构的理解程度,哪些是辅助论点,哪些是主要脉络,只有对这些细节有一定的了解,我们才能更深入地领会文 章。文章的细节并不是孤立的,它总要与其他事实前后呼应,一般来说,作者总会把同等性质的事实放在一起,并借助不同的衔接手段进行组合,从而达到说服读者 或阐明观点的目的。其提问方式不外乎有以下几种:
 
  The author provides following examples except …
 
  According to the author, all of the following are true except (that)____.
 
  Which is among the best possible ways to…?
 
  Which of the following would NOT be an example____?
 
  Which of the following is the LEAST likely…?
 
  对于细节题我们要从词义与语法(句法)着手,从这个角度来说,此类考题又可被细划分以下几个细类:
 
  1. 因果标志语
 
  表因果关系的标志词可具体分为:
 
  (1)表原因
 
  because of, since, for, as, now that, seeing that, owing to, caused by, the main reason for…is
 
  (2)表结果
 
  hence, thus, so, therefore, consequently, as a consequence, accordingly, for that reason
 
  2. 结论标志语
 
  in general, generally speaking, in short, in a word, to be brief in all, in simple words
 
  3. 转折与对比语
 
  but, however, nevertheless, otherwise, dissimilarly, unlike, on the contrary, in contrast, in opposition to, on the opposite side
 
  4. 比较类型标记语
 
  similarly, likewise, in similar fashion, in similar way, in the same matter, just as
 
  5. 列举标志语
 
  one… another…still another, first…second…third
 
  6. 举例标志语
 
  for example, as an example, as an instance, take…as an example, let me cite… as a proof
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