Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay. Suppose you have twooptions upon graduation: one is to work in a state-owned business and the other in ajoint venture. You are to make a choice between the two. Write an essay to explain thereasons for your choice.You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180words.
Reading Comprehension (40 minutes）
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one wordfor each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read thepassage through carefully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank isidentified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on AnswerSheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in thebank more than once.
Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.
Many men and women have long bought into the idea that there are "male" and "female" brains,believing that explains just about every difference between the sexes. A new study26that belief,questioning whether brains really can be distinguished by gender.
In the study, Tel Aviv University researchers27for sex differences throughout the entirehuman brain.
And what did they find? Not much. Rather than offer evidence for28brains as "male" or"female," research shows that brains fall into a wide range, with most people falling right in themiddle.
Daphna Joel, who led the study, said her research found that while there are some gender-based29, many different types of brain can't always be distinguished by gender.
While the "average" male and "average" female brains were30different, you couldn't tell itby looking at individual brain scans. Only a small31of people had "all-male" or "all-female"characteristics.
Larry Cahill, an American neuroscientist ( 神经科学家), said the study is an important addition toa growing body of research questioning32beliefs about gender and brain function. But hecautioned against concluding from this study that all brains are the same,33of gender.
"There's a mountain of evidence34the importance of sex influences at all levels of brainfunction," he told The Seattle Times.
If anything, he said, the study35that gender plays a very important role in the brain--" evenwhen we are not clear exactly how. "
Directions：In this section，you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Eachstatement contains information given in one of the paragraphs．Identify the paragraphfrom which the information is derived．You may choose a paragraph more than once．Each paragraph is marked with a letter．Answer the questions by marking thecorresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2．
Can Burglars Jam Your Wireless Security System?
A.Any product that promises to protect your home deserves careful examination．So it isn’t surprising thatyou’11 find plenty of strong opinions about the potential vulnerabilities of popular home—security systems．B.The most likely type of burglary(人室盗窃)by far is the unsophisticated crime of opportunity，usuallyinvolving a broken window or some forced entry．According to the FB1．crimes like these accounted forroughly two．thirds of all household burglaries in the US in 2013．The wide majority of the rest were illegal．unforced entries that resulted from something like a window being left open．The odds of a criminal usingtechnical means to bypass a security system are so small that the FBI doesn’t even track those statistics．
C.One of the main theoretical home—security concerns is whether or not a given system is vulnerable to beingblocked from working altogether．With wired setups，the fear is that a burglar(人室盗贼)might be ableto shut your system down simply by cutting the right cable．With a wireless setup．you stick battery—powered sensors up around your home that keep an eye on windows。doors，motion，and more．If theydetect something wrong while the system is armed．they’ll transmit a wireless aleft signal to a base station that will then raise the alarm．That approach will eliminate most cord—cutting concerns--but what abouttheir wireless equivalent，jamming?with the fight device tuned to the fight frequency，what’s to stop athief from jamming your setup and blocking that alert signal from ever reaching the base station?
D.Jamming concerns are nothing new，and they’re not unique to security systems．Any device that’s built toreceive a wireless signal at a specific frequency can be overwhelmed by a stronger signal coming in on thesame frequency．For comparison．1et’s say you wanted to“jam”a conversation between two people--allyou’d need to do is yell in the listener’s ear．
E) Security devices are required to list the frequencies they broadcast on—mat means that a potential thief canfind what they need to know with minimal Googling．They will．however．need to know what systemthey’re looking for．If you have a sign in your yard declaring what setup you use，that’d point them in theright direction，though at that point，we’re talking about a highly targeted，semi—sophisticated attack，andnot the sort of forced—entry attack that makes up the majority of burglaries．It’s easier to find and acquirejamming equipment for some frequencies than it is for others．
F)Wireless security providers will often take steps to help combat the threat of jamming attacks．SimpliSafe，winner of our Editors’Choice distinction．utilizes a special system that’s capable of separating incidental RFinterference from targeted jamming attacks．When the system thinks it’s being jammed，it’ll notify you viapush alert(推送警报)．From there，it’s up to you to sound the alarm manually．
G)SimpliSafe was singled out in one recent article on jamming，complete with a video showing the entiresystem being effectively bypassed with handheld jamming equipment．After taking appropriate measures tocontain the RF interference to our test lab，we tested the attack out for ourselves，and were able to verify that it’s possible with the right equipment．However．we also verified that SimpliSafe’s anti-jammingsystem works．It caught us in the act，sent an alert to my smartphone，and also listed our RF interferenceon the system’s event log．The team behind the article and video in question make no mention of thesystem，or whether or not it detected them．
H)We like the unique nature of that software．It means that a thief likely wouldn’t be able to Google how thesystem works．then figure out a way around it．Even if they could，SimpliSafe claims that its system isalways evolving，and that it varies slightly from system to system，which means there wouldn’t be auniversal magic formula for cracking it．Other systems also seem confident on the subject of jamming．Theteam at Frontpoint addresses the issue in a blog on its site，citing their own jam protection software andclaiming that there aren’t any documented cases of a successful jam attack since the company began offeringwireless security sensors in the l980s．
I)Jamming attacks are absolutely possible．As said before．with the fight equipment and the right know—how，it’s possible to jam any wireless transmission．But how probable is it that someone will successfully jam their way into your home and steal your stuff?
J)Let’s imagine that you live in a small home with a wireless security setup that offers a functional anti—jamming system．First，a thief is going to need to target your home，specifically．Then，he’s going to needto know the technical details of your system and acquire the specific equipment necessary for jamming yourspecific setup．Presumably，you keep your doors locked at night and while you’re away，so the thief willstill need to break in．That means defeating the lock somehow，or breaking a window．He’11 need to be jamming you at this point，as a broken window or opened door would normally release the alarm．S0，too，would the motion detectors in your home，so the thief will need to continue jamming once he’s inside andsearching for things to steal．However．he’11 need to do so without tripping the anti-jamming system，thedetails of which he almost certainly does not have access to．
K)At the end of the day，these kinds of systems are primarily designed to protect against the sort ofopportunistic smash—and—grab attack that makes up the majority of burglaries．They’re also only a singlelayer in what should ideally be a many—sided approach to securing your home，one that includes commonsense things like sound locks and proper exterior lighting at night．No system is impenetrable，and none canpromise to eliminate the worst case completely．Every one of them has vulnerabilities that a knowledgeablethief could theoretically exploit．A good system is one that keeps that worst—case setting as improbable aspossible while also offering strong protection in the event of a less-extraordinary attack．
36．It is possible for burglars to make jamming attacks with the necessary equipment and skill．37．Interfering with a wireless security system is similar to interfering with a conversation．
38．A burglar has to continuously jam the wireless security device to avoid triggering the alarm，both inside and outside the house．
39．SimpliSafe provides devices that are able to distinguish incidental radio interference from targeted jamming attacks．
40．Only a very small proportion of burglaries are committed by technical means．
41．It is difficult to crack SimpliSafe as its system keeps changing．
42．Wireless devices will transmit signals so as to activate the alarm once something wrong is detected．
43．Different measures should be taken to protect one’s home from burglary in addition to the wireless security system．
44．SimpliSafe’s device can send a warning to the house owner’s cellphone．
45．Burglars can easily get a security device’s frequency by Internet search．
Directions：There are 2 passages in this section．Each passage is followed by some questions orunfinished statements．For each of them there arefour choices marked A，B，CandD．You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on AnswerSheet 2 with a single line through the centre．
Questions 46 to 50 are based oil the following passage．
As a person who writes about food and drink for a living。I couldn’t tell you the first thing aboutBill Perry or whether the beers he sells are that great．But I can tell you that I like this guy．That’sbecause he plans to ban tipping in favor of paying his servers an actual living wage
I hate tipping．
I hate it because it’s an obligation disguised as an option．I hate it for the post—dinner math it requires of me．But mostly．I hate tipping because I believe l would be in a better place if pay decisionsregarding employees were simply left up to their employers，as is the custom in virtually every otherindustry．
Most of you probably think that you hate tipping，too．Research suggests otherwise．You actuallylove tipping!You like to feel that you have a voice in how much money your server makes．No matterhow the math works out，you persistently view restaurants with voluntary tipping systems as being abetter value，which makes it extremely difficult for restaurants and bars to do away with the tippingsystem．
One argument that you tend to hear a lot from the pr0—tipping crowd seems logical enough：theservice is better when waiters depend on tips，presumably because they see a benefit to successfullyveiling their contempt for you．Well．if this were true．we would all be slipping a few l00-dollar bills toour doctors on-the way out their doors，too．But as it turns out，waiters see only a tiny bump in tipswhen they do an exceptional job compared to a passable one．Waiters，keen observers of humanity thatthey are．are catching on to this；in one poll，a full 30％said they didn’t believe the job they did hadany impact on the tips they received．
So come on，folks：get on board with ditching the outdated tip system．Pay a little more upfrontfor your beer or burger．Support Bill Perry’s pub，and any other bar or restaurant that doesn’t ask youto do drunken math．
46．、Ⅳhat can we learn about Bill Perry from the passage?
A.He runs a pub that serves excellent beer．
B.He intends to get rid of the tipping practice．
C.He gives his staff a considerable sum for tips．
D.He lives comfortably without getting any tips．
47．What is the main reason why the author hates tipping?
A. It sets a bad example for other industries．
B. It adds to the burden of ordinary customers．
C. It forces the customer to compensate the waiter．
D.It poses a great challenge for customers to do math．
48．Why do many people love tipping according to the author?
A.They help improve the quality of the restaurants they dine in．
B. They believe waiters deserve such rewards for good service．
C.They want to preserve a wonderful tradition of the industry．
D.They can have some say in how much their servers earn．
49．What have some waiters come to realize according to a survey?
A.Service quality has little effect on tip size．
B. It is in human nature to try to save on tips．
C.Tips make it more difficult to please customers．
D.Tips benefit the boss rather than the employees．
50．What does the author argue for in the passage?
A.Restaurants should calculate the tips for customers．
B.Customers should pay more tips to help improve service．
C.Waiters deserve better than just relying on tips for a living．
D.Waiters should be paid by employers instead of customers．Passage Two
Questions 5l to 55 are based on the following passage．
In the past，falling oil prices have given a boost to the world economy，but recent forecasts forglobal growth have been toned down．even as oil prices sink lower and lower．Does that mean the linkbetween lower oil prices and growth has weakened?
Some experts say there are still good reasons to believe cheap oil should heat up the worldeconomy．Consumers have more money in their pockets when they’re paying less at the pump．Theyspend that money off other things，which stimulates the economy．
The biggest gains go to countries that import most of their oil like China．Japan．and India．Butdoesn't the extra money in the pockets of those countries' consumers mean an equal loss inoil-producing countries, cancelling out the gains? Not necessarily, say economic researcher SaraJohnson. "Many oil producers built up huge reserve funds when prices were high, so when prices fallthey will draw on their reserves to support government spending and subsidies (补贴) for theirconsumers.
But not all oil producers have big reserves. In Venezuela, collapsing oil prices have sent itseconomy into free-fall.
Economist Carl Weinberg believes the negative effects of plunging oil prices are overwhelming thepositive effects of cheaper oil. The implication is a sharp decline in global trade, which has plungedpartly because oil-producing nations can't afford to import as much as they used to.
Sara Johnson acknowledges that the global economic benefit from a fall in oil prices today is likelylower than it was in the past. One reason is that more countries are big oil producers now, so thenations suffering from the price drop account for a larger share of the global economy.
Consumers, in the U.S. at least, are acting cautiously with the savings they're getting at the gaspump, as the memory of the recent great recession is still fresh in their mind. And a number ofoil-producing countries are trimming their gasoline subsidies and raising taxes, so the net savings forglobal consumers is not as big as the oil price plunge might suggest.
51. What does the author mainly discuss in the passage?
A. The reasons behind the plunge of oil prices.
B. Possible ways to stimulate the global economy.
C. The impact of chape oil on global economic growth.
D. The effect of falling oil prices on consumer spending.
52. Why do some experts believe cheap oil will stimulate the global economy?
A. Manufacturers can produce consumer goods at a much lower cost.
B. Lower oil prices have always given a big boost to the global economy.
C. Oil prices may rise or fall but economic laws are not subject to change.
D. Consumers will spend their savings from cheap oil on other commodities.
53. What happens in many oil-exporting countries when oil prices go down?
A. They suspend import of necessities from overseas.
B. They reduce production drastically to boost oil prices.
C. They use their money reserves to back up consumption.
D. They try to stop their economy from going into free-fall.
54. How does Carl Weinberg view the current oil price plunge?
A. It is one that has seen no parallel in economic history.
B. Its negative effects more than cancel out its positive effects.
C. It still has a chance to give rise to a boom in the global economy.
D. Its effects on the global economy go against existing economic laws.
55. Why haven't falling oil prices boosted the global economy as they did before?
A. People are not spending all the money they save on gas.
B. The global economy is likely to undergo another recession.
C. Oil importers account for a larger portion of the global economy.
D. People the world over are afraid of a further plunge in oil prices.
Translation ( 30 minutes )
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese intoEnglish. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
State-owned Business or Joint Venture
①Upon graduation, virtually all college students willconfront the issue of career choice, which is truly a tough one.②Some hold that there is no better way to get a decent job thanworking in a stated-owned business which will guarantee theirlife after retirement, while others take the attitude that a jointventure outweighs any other jobs as it may provide higherincome for employees. ③As for me, I prefer the latter one.
④For one thing, a joint venture usually offers a morecooperative and more competitive atmosphere which is suitablefor the beginners to grow and develop.⑤ For another, jointventures usually offer a higher salary, which holds a tremendousfascination for a great number of people, especially for theyoung who need to cover the expenses of transportation,house-renting, and social activities. ⑥Besides the above two, Iadore the diverse business culture in the joint ventures,immersed in which, I can broaden my vision and expand myknowledge.
⑦Based on the above reasons, a joint venture will be myfirst and sole choice.
37. Interferingwithawirelesssecuritysystem is similar to interfering with aconversation.
由题干中的interfering with aconversation定位到原文画线处。
题干中提到两件事，干扰无线安保系统和干扰对话，且由similar to来将二者进行对比，这和定位句中的forcomparison的作用一样，都是将两件事情相提并论，且定位句中提到了“jam”a conversation betweentwo people，其中jam和interfere的意思一致，故答案为D.。
39. SimpliSafe provides devices that are able todistinguish incidental radio interference fromtargeted jamming attacks.
SimpliSafe提供了能够区分偶发性信号干扰和有目的性的信号阻断性攻击的设备：由题干中的distinguish，incidentalradio interference和targeted jamming attacks定位到原文画线处。
题干中提到的incidental．-interference和targeted jamming attacks与定位旬中的表述一致，而题干中所用的动词distinguish和定位句中的separating为近义词，整句为同义转述，放答案为F。
41. It is difficult to crack SimpliSafeas its system keeps changing.
由题干中的SimpliSafe和its system keeps changing定位到原文画线处。
题干中提到的keeps changing和定位句中的always evolving含义一致，而定位句中的…therewouldn't be a universal magic for cracking it．所表达的实质意思就是该系统很难被破解，题干中的diffcult to crack是对该意思的概括，故答案为H。
43. Different measures should betaken to protect one's homefrom burglary in addition to thewireless security system.
由题干中的Differentmeasures和protect one’s home定位到原文画线处
52．D.由题干中的experts和cheap oil will stimulate the global economy定位到第二段：Someexperts say... Consumers have more money in their pockets when they're paying less at the pump.They spend that money on other things, which stimulates the economy.
53．C.。由题干中的oil．exporting countries和oil prices go down定位到第三段最后一句：“Many oilproducers built up huge reserve funds when prices were high, so when prices fall they will draw ontheir reserves to support government spending and subsidies (补贴) for their consumers. "oil producers和oil—exporting countries意思一致。根据定位句可知，当油价下落时，很多原油生产国会利用储备金来支撑政府开支以及补贴消费者。故答案为C.。
Part IV Translation
With China's reform and opening up, quite a number of youngsters would like to celebrate their weddingsin western style. The bride wears a white wedding dress at the ceremony, as white is regarded as a symbol ofpurity. However, in traditional Chinese culture, white is a color that is often used in funerals. That's why it'snecessary to keep in mind that white flowers must not be gifts for patients, especially not for the elders orcritically sick patients. Similarly, the cash gift shouldn't be packed in a white envelope, but in a red one.