Part I Writing(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay commenting on the saying"Knowledge is a treasure, but practice is the key to it. " You can give an example or two to illustrate your point of view. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
PartⅡ Listening Comprehension(30 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each
conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A., B., C. and D ), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
1. A. Prepare for his exams.
B. Catch up on his work.
C. Attend the concert.
D. Go on a vacation.
2. A. Three crew members were involved in the incident.
B. None of the hijackers carried any deadly weapons.
C. The plane had been scheduled to fly to Japan.
D. None of the passengers were injured or killed.
3. A. An article about the election.
B. A tedious job to be done.
C. An election campaign.
D. A fascinating topic.
4. A. The restaurant was not up to the speakers' expectations.
B. The restaurant places many ads in popular magazines.
C. The critic thought highly of the Chinese restaurant.
D. Chinatown has got the best restaurants in the city.
5. A. He is going to visit his mother in the hospital.
B. He is going to take on a new job next week.
C. He has many things to deal with right now.
D. He behaves in a way nobody understands.
6. A. A large number of students refused to vote last night.
B. At least twenty students are needed to vote on an issue.
C. Major campus issues had to be discussed at the meeting.
D. More students have to appear to make their voice heard.
7. A. The woman can hardly tell what she likes.
B. The speakers like watching TV very much.
C. The speakers have nothing to do but watch TV.
D. The man seldom watched TV before retirement.
8. A. The woman should have registered earlier.
B. He will help the woman solve the problem.
C ) He finds it hard to agree with what the woman says.
D. The woman will be able to attend the classes she wants.
Questions 9 to 12 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
9. A. Persuade the man to join her company.
B. Employ the most up-to-date technology.
C. Export bikes to foreign markets.
D. Expand their domestic business.
10. A. The state subsidizes small and medium enterprises.
B. The government has control over bicycle imports.
C. They can compete with the best domestic manufacturers.
D. They have a cost advantage and can charge higher prices.
11. A. Extra costs might eat up their profits abroad.
B. More workers will be needed to do packaging.
C. They might lose to foreign bike manufacturers.
D. It is very difficult to find suitable local agents.
12. A. Report to the management.
B. Attract foreign investments.
C. Conduct a feasibility study
D. Consult financial experts.
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
13. A. Coal burnt daily for the comfort of our homes.
B. Anything that can be used to produce power.
C. Fuel refined from oil extracted from underground.
D. Electricity that keeps all kinds of machines running.
14. A. Oil will soon be replaced by alternative energy sources.
B. Oil reserves in the world will be exhausted in a decade.
C. Oil consumption has given rise to many global problems.
D. Oil production will begin to decline worldwide by 2025.
15. A. Minimize the use of fossil fuels.
B. Start developing alternative fuels.
C. Find the real cause for global warming.
D. Take steps to reduce the greenhouse effect.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A ), B ), C. and D ). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 71 with a single line through the centre
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16. A. The ability to predict fashion trends.
B. A refined taste for artistic works.
C. Years of practical experience.
D. Strict professional training.
17. A. Promoting all kinds of American hand-made specialties.
B. Strengthening cooperation with foreign governments.
C. Conducting trade in art works with dealers overseas.
D. Purchasing handicrafts from all over the world.
18. A. She has access to fashionable things.
B. She is doing what she enjoys doing.
C. She can enjoy life on a modest salary.
D. She is free to do whatever she wants.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.
19. A. Join in neighborhood patrols.
B. Get involved in his community.
C. Voice his complaints to the city council.
D. Make suggestions to the local authorities.
20. A. Deterioration in the quality of life.
B. Increase of police patrols at night.
C. Renovation of the vacant buildings.
D. Violation of community regulations.
21. A. They may take a long time to solve.
B. They need assistance from the city.
C. They have to be dealt with one by one.
D. They are too big for individual efforts.
22. A. He had got some groceries at a big discount.
B. He had read a funny poster near his seat.
C. He had done a small deed of kindness.
D. He had caught the bus just in time.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
23. A. Childhood and healthy growth.
B. Pressure and heart disease.
C. Family life and health.
D. Stress and depression.
24. A. It experienced a series of misfortunes.
B. It was in the process of reorganization.
C. His mother died of a sudden heart attack.
D. His wife left him because of his bad temper.
25. A. They would give him a triple bypass surgery.
B. They could remove the block in his artery.
C. They could do nothing to help him.
D. They would try hard to save his life.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time,you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
When most people think of the word "education," they think of a pupil as a sort of animate sausage casing. Into this empty casing, the teachers 26 stuff "education."
But genuine education, as Socrates knew more than two thousand years ago, is not 27 the stuffings of information into a person, but rather eliciting knowledge from him; it is the 28 of what is in the mind.
"The most important part of education," once wrote William Ernest Hocking, the 29 Harvard philosopher, "is this instruction of a man in what he has inside of him. And, as Edith Hamilton has reminded us, Socrates never said, "I know, learn from me." He said, rather, "Look into your own selvers and find the 30 of truth that God has put into every heart, and that only you can kindle (点燃) to a
31."In a dialogue, Socrates takes an ignorant slave boy, without a day of 32, and proves to the amazed observers that the boy really "knows" geometry--because the principles of geometry are already in his mind, waiting to be called out.
So many of the discussions and 33 about the content of education are useless and inconclusive because they 34 what should "go into" the student rather than with what should be taken out, and how this can best be done.
The college student who once said to me, after a lecture, "I spend so much time studying that I don't have a chance to learn anything," was clearly expressing his 35 with the sausage-casing view of education.
Part III Reading Comprehension(40 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on ,Answer Street 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
Innovation, the elixir (灵丹妙药 ) of progress, has always cost people their jobs. In the Industrial Revolution hand weavers were 36 aside by the mechanical loom. Over the past 30 years the digital
revolution has 37 many of the mid-skill jobs that supported 20th-century middle-class life. Typists,ticket agents, bank tellers and many production-line jobs have been dispensed with, just as the weavers were.
For those who believe that technological progress has made the world a better place, such disruption is a natural part of rising 38. Although innovation kills some jobs, it creates new and better ones, as a more 39 society becomes richer and its wealthier inhabitants demand more goods and services. A hundred years ago one in three American workers was 40 on a farm. Today less than 2% of them produce far more food. The millions freed from the land were not rendered 41, but found better- paid work as the economy grew more sophisticated. Today the pool of secretaries has 42, but there are ever more computer programmers and web designers.
Optimism remains the right starting-point, but for workers the dislocating effects of technology may make themselves evident faster than its 43. Even if new jobs and wonderful products emerge, in the short term income gaps will widen, causing huge social dislocation and perhaps even changing politics.
Technology's 44 will feel like a tornado (旋风), hitting the rich world first, but 45 sweeping through poorer countries too. No government is prepared for it.
A. benefits F) jobless K) rhythm
B. displaced G) primarily L) sentiments
C. employed H) productive M) shrunk
D. eventually I) prosperity N) swept
E) impact J) responsive O) withdrawn
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
Why the Mona Lisa Stands Out
A. Have you ever fallen for a novel and been amazed not to find it on lists of great books? Or walked around a sculpture renowned as a classic, struggling to see what the fuss is about? If so, you've probably pondered the question a psychologist, James Cutting, asked himself: How does a work of art come to be considered great?
B. The intuitive answer is that some works of art are just great: of intrinsically superior quality. The paintings that win prime spots in galleries, get taught in classes and reproduced in books are the ones that have proved their artistic value over time. If you can't see they're superior, that's your problem.
It's an intimidatingly neat explanation. But some social scientists have been asking awkward questions of it, raising the possibility that artistic canons (名作目录) are little more than fossilised historical accidents.
C. Cutting, a professor at Cornell University, wondered if a psychological mechanism known as the "mere-exposure effect" played a role in deciding which paintings rise to the top of the cultural league. Cutting designed an experiment to test his hunch (直觉). Over a lecture course he regularly showed undergraduates works of impressionism for two seconds at a time. Some of the paintings were canonical, included in art-history books. Others were lesser known but of comparable quality. These were exposed four times as often. Afterwards, the students preferred them to the canonical works, while a control group of students liked the canonical ones best. Cutting's students had grown to like those paintings more simply because they had seen them more.
D. Cutting believes his experiment offers a clue as to how canons are formed. He
reproduced works of impressionism today tend to have been bought by five or six wealthy and influential collectors in the late 19th century. The preferences of these men bestowed (给予) prestige on certain works, which made the works more likely to be hung in galleries and printed in collections. The fame passed down the years, gaining momentum from mere exposure as it did so. The more people were exposed to, the more they liked it, and the more they liked it, the more it appeared in books, on posters and in big exhibitions. Meanwhile, academics and critics created sophisticated justifications for its preeminence (卓越). After all, it's not just the masses who tend to rate what they see more often more highly. As contemporary artists like Warhol and Damien Hirst have grasped, critics' praise is deeply entwined (交织) with publicity. "Scholars", Cutting argues, "are no different from the public in the effects of mere exposure."
E. The process described by Cutting evokes a principle that the sociologist Duncan Watts calls "cumulative advantage": once a thing becomes popular, it will tend to become more popular still. A few years ago,Watts, who is employed by Microsoft to study the dynamics of social networks, had a similar experience to Cutting's in another Paris museum. After queuing to see the "Mona Lisa" in its climate- controlled bulletproof box at the Louvre, he came away puzzled: why was it considered so superior to the three other Leonardos in the previous chamber, to which nobody seemed to be paying the slightest attention?
F. When Watts looked into the history of "the greatest painting of all time", he discovered that, for most of its life, the"Mona Lisa"remained in relative obscurity. In the 1850s, Leonardo da Vinci was considered no match for giants of Renaissance art like Titian and Raphael, whose works were worth almost ten times as much as the "Mona Lisa". It was only in the 20th century that Leonardo's portrait of his patron's wife rocketed to the number-one spot. What propelled it there wasn't a scholarly re-evaluation, but a theft.
G. In 1911 a maintenance worker at the Louvre walked out of the museum with the "Mona Lisa" hidden under his smock (工作服). Parisians were shocked at the theft of a painting to which, until then, they had paid little attention. When the museum reopened, people queued to see the gap where the "Mona Lisa" had once hung in a way they had never done for the painting itself. From then on, the "Mona Lisa" came to represent Western culture itself.
H. Although many have tried, it does seem improbable that the painting's unique status can be attributed entirely to the quality of its brushstrokes. It has been said that the subject's eyes follow the viewer around the room. But as the painting's biographer, Donald Sassoon, dryly notes, "In reality the effect can be obtained from any portrait." Duncan Watts proposes that the "Mona Lisa" is merely an extreme example of a general rule. Paintings, poems and pop songs are buoyed (使浮起) or
events or preferences that turn into waves of influence, passing down the generations.
I. "Saying that cultural objects have value," Brian Eno once wrote, "is like saying that telephones have conversations." Nearly all the cultural objects we consume arrive wrapped in inherited opinion; our preferences are always, to some extent, someone else's. Visitors to the "Mona Lisa" know they are about to visit the greatest work of art ever and come away appropriately impressed--or let down. An audience at a performance of "Hamlet" know it is regarded as a work of genius, so that is what they mostly see. Watts even calls the preeminence of Shakespeare a "historical accident".
J. Although the rigid high-low distinction fell apart in the 1960s, we still use culture as a badge of identity. Today's fashion for eclecticism (折中主义) "I love Bach, Abba and Jay Z" is, Shamus Khan, a Columbia University psychologist, argues, a new way for the middle class to distinguish themselves from what they perceive to be the narrow tastes of those beneath them in the social hierarchy.
K. The intrinsic quality of a work of art is starting to seem like its least important attribute. But perhaps it's more significant than our social scientists allow. First of all, a work needs a certain quality to be eligible to be swept to the top of the pile. The "Mona Lisa" may not be a worthy world champion, but it was in the Louvre in the first place, and not by accident. Secondly, some stuff is simply better than other stuff. Read "Hamlet" after reading even the greatest of Shakespeare's contemporaries, and the difference may strike you as unarguable.
L. A study in the British Journal of Aesthetics suggests that the exposure effect doesn't work the same way on everything, and points to a different conclusion about how canons are formed. The social scientists are right to say that we should be a little sceptical of greatness, and that we should always look in the next room. Great art and mediocrity (平庸) can get confused, even by experts. But that's why we need to see, and read, as much as we can. The more we're exposed to the good and the bad, the better we are at telling the difference. The eclecticists have it.
46. According to Duncan Watts, the superiority of the "Mona Lisa" to Leonardo's other works resulted from the cumulative advantage.
47. Some social scientists have raised doubts about the intrinsic value of certain works of art.
48. It is often random events or preferences that determine the fate of a piece of art.
49. In his experiment, Cutting found that his subjects liked lesser known works
because of more exposure.
50. The author thinks the greatness of an art work still lies in its intrinsic value.
51. It is true of critics as well as ordinary people that the popularity of artistic works is closely associated with publicity.
52. We need to expose ourselves to more art and literature in order to tell the superior from the inferior.
53. A study of the history of the greatest paintings suggests even a great work of art could experience years of neglect.
54. Culture is still used as a mark to distinguish one social class from another.
55. Opinions about and preferences for cultural objects are often inheritable.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A. , B. , C. and D.. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
When the right person is holding the right job at the right moment, that person's influence is greatly expanded. That is the position in which Janet Yellen, who is expected to be confirmed as the next chair of the Federal Reserve Bank (FeD. in January, now finds herself. If you believe, as many do, that unemployment is the major economic and social concern of our day, then it is no stretch to think Yellen is the most powerful person in the world right now.
Throughout the 2008 financial crisis and the recession and recovery that followed, central banks have taken on the role of stimulators of last resort, holding up the global economy with vast amounts of money in the form of asset buying. Yellen, previously a Fed vice chair, was one of the principal architects of the Fed's $ 3.8 trillion money dump. A star economist known for her groundbreaking work on labor markets, Yellen was a kind of prophetess early on in thc crisis for her warnings about the subprime (次级债) meltdown. Now it will be her job to get the Fed and the markets out of the biggest and most unconventional monetary program in history without derailing the fragile recovery.The good news is that Yellen,67, is particularly well suited to meet these challenges. She has a keen understanding of financial markets, an appreciation for their imperfections and a strong belief that human suffering was more related to unemployment than anything else.
Some experts worry that Yellen will be inclined to chase unemployment to the neglect of inflation.
But with wages still relatively flat and the economy increasingly divided between the well-off and the long-term unemployed, more people worry about the opposite, deflation (通货紧缩) that would aggravate the economy's problems.
Either way, the incoming Fed chief will have to walk a fine line in slowly ending the stimulus. It must be steady enough to deflate bubbles (去泡沫) and bring markets back down to earth but not so quick thatit creates another credit crisis.
Unlike many past Fed leaders, Yellen is not one to buy into the finance industry's argument that itshould be left alone to regulate itself. She knows all along the Fed has been too slack on regulation of finance. Yellen is likely to address the issue right after she pushes unemployment below 6%, stabilizes markets and makes sure that the recovery is more inclusive and robust. As Princeton Professor Alan Blinder says, "She's smart as a whip, deeply logical, willing to argue but also a good listener. She can persuade without creating hostility." All those traits will be useful as the global economy's new power player takes on its most annoying problems.
56. What do many people think is the biggest problem facing Janet Yellen?
A. Lack of money.
B. Subprime crisis.
D. Social instability.
57. What did Yellen help the Fed do to tackle the 2008 financial crisis?
A. Take effective measures to curb inflation.
B. Deflate the bubbles in the American economy.
C. Formulate policies to help financial institutions.
D. Pour money into the market through asset buying.
58. What is a greater concern of the general public?
59. What is Yellen likely to do in her position as the Fed chief?
A. Develop a new monetary program.
B. Restore public confidence.
C. Tighten financial regulation.
D. Reform the credit system.
60. How does Alan Blinder portray Yellen?
A. She possesses strong persuasive power.
B. She has confidence in what she is doing.
C. She is one of the world's greatest economists.
D. She is the most powerful Fed chief in history.
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
Air pollution is deteriorating in many places around the world. The fact that public parks in cities become crowded as soon as the sun shines proves that people long to breathe in green, open spaces. They do not all know what they are seeking but they flock there, nevertheless. And, in these surroundings, they are generally both peaceful and peaceable. It is rare to see people fighting in a garden. Perhaps struggle unfolds first, not at an economic or social level, but over the appropriation of air, essential to life itself.
If human beings can breathe and share air, they don't need to struggle with one another.
Unfortunately, in our western tradition, neither materialist nor idealist theoreticians give enough consideration to this basic condition for life. As for politicians, despite proposing curbs on environmental pollution, they have not yet called for it to be made a crime. Wealthy countries are even allowed to pollute if they pay for it.
But is our life worth anything other than money? The plant world shows us in silence what faithfulness to life consists of. It also helps us to a new beginning, urging us to care for our breath, not only at a vital but also at a spiritual level. The interdependence to which we must pay the closest attention is that whicl exists between ourselves and the plant world. Often described as "the lungs of the planet", the woods tha cover the earth offer us the gift of breathable air by releasing oxygen. But their capacity to renew the ai polluted by industry has long reached its limit. If we lack the air necessary for a healthy life, it is because we have filled it with chemicals and undercut the ability of plants to regenerate it. As we know, rapi deforestation combined with the massive burning of fossil fuels is an explosive recipe for an irreversibl disaster.
The fight over the appropriation of resources will lead the entire planet to hell unless humans learn t share life, both with each other and with plants. This task is simultaneously ethical and political because can be discharged only when each takes it upon herself or himself and only when it is accomplishe together with others. The lesson taught by plants is that sharing life expands and enhances the sphere c the living, while dividing life into so-called natural or human resources diminishes it. We must come t view the air, the plants and ourselves as the contributors to the preservation of life and growth, rathe than a web of quantifiable objects or productive potentialities at our disposal. Perhaps then we woulfinally begin to live, rather than being concerned with bare survival.
61. What does the author assume might be the primary reason that people would struggle with each other
A. To get their share of clean air.
B. To pursue a comfortable life.
C. To gain a higher social status.
D. To seek economic benefits.
62. What does the author accuse western politicians of?
A. Depriving common people of the right to clean air.
B. Giving priority to theory rather than practical action.
C. Offering preferential treatment to wealthy countries.
D. Failing to pass laws to curb environmental pollution.
63. What does the author try to draw our closest attention to?
A. The massive burning of fossil fuels.
B. Our relationship to the plant world.
C. The capacity of plants to renew polluted air.
D. Large-scale deforestation across the world.
64. How can human beings accomplish the goal of protecting the planet according to the author?
A. By showing respect for plants.
B. By preserving all forms of life.
C. By tapping all natural resources.
D. By pooling their efforts together.
65. What does the author suggest we do in order not just to survive?
A. Expand the sphere of living.
B. Develop nature's potentials.
C. Share life with nature.
D. Allocate the resources.
Part Ⅳ Translation(30 minute）
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
PartⅡ Listening Comprehension
1. W Can you come to the concert with me thisweekend? Or do you have to prepare forexams?
M: I still have a lot to do, but maybe a breakwould do me good.
Q: What will the man probably do?
2. W: What does the paper say about the horri bleincident that happened this morning on Flight 870 to Hong Kong?
M: It ended with the arrest of the three hijackers. They had forced the plane to fly to Japan,but all the passengers and crew members landed safely.
O: What do we learn from the conversation?
3. M: Hello. This is the most fascinating article I've ever come across. I think you should spare some time to read it.
W: Oh, really? I thought that anything about th election would be tedious.
Q: What are the speakers talking about?
4. I'm not going to trust the restaurant critic from that magazine again. The food here doesn't taste anything like what we had in Chinatown.
M: It definitely wasn't worth the wait.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
5. W.. Do you know what's wrong with Mark? He'sbeen acting very strangely lately.
M： Come on. With his mother hospitalized rightafter he's taken on a new job, he's just got a lot on his mind.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation about Mark?
C)【精析】综合理解题。对话中女士问男士知不知道 Mark怎么了，他这阵子表现得怪怪的：男士回答说 Mark刚开始一份新工作，而这时候他的妈妈住院了，他脑子里的事儿很多。由此可知，Mark近期需要做的事情太多了。
6. W: There were only 20 students at last night'smeeting, so nothing could be voted on.
M.. That's too bad. They'll have to turn up in greater numbers if they want a voice o campus issues.
Q: What does the man mean?
7. M.. I try to watch TV as little as possible, but it's so hard.
W: I didn't watch TV at all before I retired, but now I can hardly tear myself away from it.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
8. W：I'm having a problem registering for theclasses I want.
M： That's too bad, but I'm pretty sure you'll be able to work everything out before this semester starts.
Q.. What does the man mean?
W: Jack, sit down and listen. This is important. (9)We'll have to tackle the problems of the exporting step by step. And the first move is to get an up-to-date picture of where we stand now.
M: Why don't we just concentrate on expanding here at home?
W: Of course, we should hold on to our position here. But you must admit the market here is limited.
M: Yes, but it's safe. (10)The government keeps out foreigners with import controls. So I must admit I feel sure (9)we could hold our own against foreign bikes,
W: I agree. (9)That's why I am suggesting exporting. Because I feel we canpete with the best of them.
M: What you are really saying is that we'd make more profit by selling bikes abroad, where we have,a cost advantage and can charge high prices.
M: But, wait a minute. (11)Packaging, shipping, finaetc. will push up our cost and we could end up no better off, maybe worse off.
W.. OK. Now there are extra costs involved. But if we do it right, they can be built into the price of the bike and we can still be competitive.
M.. How sure are you about our chances of success in the foreign market?
W.. Well, that's the sticky one. (12)It's going to need a lot of research. I'm hoping to get your help. Well, come on, Jack. Is it worth it, or not?
M: There will be a lot of problems.
W.. Nothing we can't handle.
M.. Um... I'm not that hopeful. But, yes, (12)1 think we should go ahead with the feasibility study.
W: Marvelous, Jack. I was hoping you be on my side.
9．what does the woman intend to do?C. 对话中提到“国外的自行车”，在对话中间部分女士c)【精析】推理判断题。对话开始部分女士提到想与f 又提到“这就是我建议出口的原因”。综上可知，女男士一起来逐步解决出口中遇到的问题，之后男 士想出口自行车。
10. Why does the man think it's safe to focus on the home market?
11. What is the man's concern about selling bikes abroad?
12. What dothe speakers agree to do?
w: What does the term "alternative energy source" mean?
M: (13)When we think of energy or fuel for our homes and cars, we think of petroleum, a fossil fuel processedfrom oil removed from the ground, of which there is a limited supply. But alternative fuels can be many things. Wind, sun and water can all be used to create fuel.
W: Is the threat of running out of petroleum real?
M: It has taken thousands of years to create the natural stores of petroleum we have available at a much faster rate than it is being produced over time. The real controversy surrounding the amount of petroleum we have is how much we need to keep in reserve for future use. (14)Most experts agree that by around 2025, the amount of petroleum we use will reach a peak. Then production and availability will begin to seriously decline. This is not to say there will be no petroleum at this point. But it'll become very difficult and therefore expcasive to extract.
W: Is that the most —— reason to develdp alternative fuel and energy sources?
M: There are two-v——y clear reasons to do so. (15)One is that whether we have 60 or 600 years of fossil fuels left, we have to find other fuel sources eventually. So the sooner we start, the better off we will be. The other big argument is that when long time, which leads to some long-term negative efects, like global warming and the greenhouse effect.
13. What do we usually refer to whenwe talk about energy according to the man?
14. What do most experts agree on according to the man?
15. What does the man hink we should do now?B)【精析】细节推断题。对话末尾部分，男士说不论是60年，还是600年，早晚需要其他能源。因此，越早开始行动，对人类越好。也就是说男士认为现在我们应该开始开发替代燃料。
Karen Smith is a buyer for a department store in New York: Department store buyers purchase the goods that their stores sell. (16)They not only have to know what is fashionable at the moment, but also have to guess what will become fashionable next season or next year. Most buyers work for just one department in a store.
But the goods that Karen finds may be displayed and sold in several different sections of the store. (17)Her job involves buying handicrafts from all over the world. Last year, she made a trip to Morocco and returned with rugs, pots, dishes and pans. The year before, she visited Mexico and bought back hand-made table cloths, mirrors with frames of tin and paper flowers. The paper flowers are bright and colorful, so they were used to decorate the whole store. This year Karen is travelling in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Many of the countries that Karen visits have government offices that promote handicrafts. The officials are glad to cooperate with her by showing her the products that are available. Karen especially likes to visit markets in small towns and villages whenever she can arrange for it. She is always looking for interesting and unusual items. (18)Karen thinks she has the best job she could have found. She loves all the travelling that she has to do because she often visits markets and small out-of-the-way places. She sees much more of the country she visits than an ordinary tourist would. As soon as she gets back to New York from one trip, Karen begins to plan another.
16. What is said to make a good department store buyer?
17. What does Karen's job involve?D)【精析】细节辨认题。短文中提到，Karen Smith的工作是到世界各地去购买手工艺品。
18. Why does Karen think she has got the best job? B)【精析】目的原因题。短文中明确提到Karen觉得她已经找到了最好的工作，因为她喜欢去世界各地出差，她可以借出差的机会去市场和那些人们不常去的小地方。
(19)Mark felt that it was time for him to take part in his community, so he went to the neighborhood meeting after work. (20)The area's city councilwoman was leading a discussion about how the quality of life was on the decline. The neighborhood faced many problems. Mark looked at the charts: taped to the walls.
There were charts for parking problems, crime, and for problems in vacant buildings. Mark read from the charts, police patrols cut back, illegal parking up 20%. People were supposed to suggest solutions to the councilwoman. It was too much for Mark. (21)"The problems are too big," he thought. He turned to the man next to him and said, "I think this is a waste of my time. Nothing I could do would make a difference here." As he neared the bus stop on his way home, Mark saw a woman carrying a grocery bag and a baby. As Mark got closer, her other child, a little boy, suddenly darted into the street. The woman tried to reach for him, but as she moved, her bag shifted and the groceries started to fall out. Mark ran to take the boy's arm and led him back to his mother. "You gotta stay with morn," he said. Then he picked up the street groceries while the woman smiled in relief. "Thanks!" She said. "You've got great timing! Just being neighborly," Mark said.
As he rode home, he glanced at the poster near his seat in the bus. (22)"Small acts of kindness add up." Mark smiled and thought, "Maybe that' s a good place to start."
19．What did Mark think he should start doing?人来说24小时不睡觉应该会让人不舒服，一般来讲，每个人都需要保证8小时睡眠。尽管人们的B)【精析】事实细节题。短文开头提到，对于大多数睡眠时间和需求会有差异，但人们总是需要睡觉的，因为睡眠是人们基本的需求。由此可知，人们想当然地认为每个人都需要睡觉才能生存。
20. What was being discussed when Mark arrived at the neighborhood meeting?A)【精析】事实细节题。对于一般人来说，睡眠是基本的生存需要，但Al Herpin却与众不同，因为他从来不睡觉。医生在研究了他的情况后，认为这的确是个例外。
21. What did Mark think of the community'sproblems?
22. Why did Mark smile on his ride home?
c)【精析】推理判断题。短文提到一些医生对A Herpin不用睡觉的现象感到吃惊，但他们找不出原因。Al Herpin说出了一个唯一可能的原因：母亲在生他之前曾经受过创伤。
And a stressing childhood can lead to heart disease, what about current stressors--longer work hours, threats of layoffs, collapsing pension funds? A study last year in The Lancet examined more than 11000 heart- attack sufferers from 52 countries. It found that in the year before their heart attacks, patients had been under significantly more strains than some 13000 healthy control subjects. Those strains came from work, family, financial troubles, depression and other causes. "Each of these factors individually was associated with increased risk," says Dr. Salim Yusuf, professor of medicine at Canada's McMaster University and senior investigator on the study—— "Together, they accounted for 30% of overall heart-attack risk." But people respond differently to high-pressure work situations. Whether it produces heart problems seems to depend on whether you have a sense of control over life, or live at the mercy of circumstances and superiors. (24)That was the experience of John O'Connell, a Rockford , Ill., laboratory manager, who suffered his first heart attack in 1996, at the age of 56. In the two years before, his mother and two of his children had suffered serious illnesses, and his job had been changed in the reorganization. "My life seemed completely out of control," he says. "I had no idea where I would end up." He ended up in hospital due to a block in his artery. Two months later, he had a triple bypass surgery. (25)A second heart attack when he was 58 left his doctor shaking his head. "There's nothing more we can do for you," doctors told him.
23. What does the passage mainly discuss?
B)【精析】推理判断题。短文开篇即提到了stress和heart disease，接下来，短文提到有研究表明，大多数心脏病患者的发病都与压力相关。在短文后半部分，以John 0’Connell的个人经历说明，他所经受的压力对他的心脏产生了严重的影响。
24. What do we learn about John O'Connell's family?
25. What did John O'Connell's doctors tell him whenhe had a second heart attack?
26．are supposed to 句子的谓语。空格后的stuff为动词原形，因此空【精析】句意推断题。此处应填入动词(词组)充当l 格处应该会出现情态动词或不定式结构。结合录音填入are supposed to,意为应该o
34．al e concerned with【精析】句意推断题。空格处应该填人动词(词组)，构成句子的谓语。关于教育的讨论都没有用，因为他们所关注的都是如何将知识导人到学生脑海，而不是怎样帮助他们提取知识。结合录音填入are concerned with，意为“关心，忙于”。
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
【文章来源】本文选自2014年1月18日刊登在The Economist(《经济学人》)上的一篇标题为“Coming to an
Office Near You”(《近在咫尺的威胁》)的文章。
B)【语法判断】空格位于has之后，名词词组many ofthe mid．skill jobs之前，故应填入动词过去分词，构成现在完成时。【语义判断】根据句意，在过去的三十年里，数码革命使很多中级技能工种___。下一句讲到，就像纺织工人被摒弃了一样，打字员、票务代理、银行柜员和很多生产线上的岗位都被摒弃了。由此推断，空格处应填入一个词表示中级技能工种消失。由此可知答案为displaced“取消”。
C)【语法判断】空格位于系动词was之后，介词短语on a farm之前，应填入及物动词的过去分词构成被动语态。【语义判断】根据句意，三分之一的美国工人被____在农场里干活。选项提供的五个动词中，只剩下employed“雇用”，shrunk“萎缩”和withdrawn“退出；取消”还没有选，结合上下文语境可知答案为employed“雇用”。
【文章来源】本文选自Intelligent L咖(《智慧生活》)杂志，2014年5／6月刊，标题为“Why the Mona Lisa Stands Out”(《为什么(蒙娜丽莎>能脱颖而出》)。
J) (54)虽然20世纪60年代就没有严格的等级区分了，人们仍然会用文化来象征身份。哥伦比亚大学心理学家夏姆斯·汗认为，如今流行的折中主义——“我爱巴赫、阿巴乐队以及Jay Z(美国最佳说唱歌手，译者注)——是中产阶级用来区分自己不同于那些他们认为品位单一的社会等级在他们之下的人的一种新手段。
46．【定位1由题干中的Duncan Watts，superioritv和cumulative advantage定位到E)段首句和末句。
H)【精析】同义转述题。定位句提到，绘画、诗词和流行歌曲会因一些产生影响的随机事件或人们的偏好载沉载浮，世代传承。题干中的determine the lfate对应定位句中的buoyed or sunk，a piece of lart对应定位句中的Paintings，poems and pop『songs，故答案为H)。
49．【定位1由题干中的experiment，Cuttin9和Jcanonical works定位到c)段最后两句。 C)【精析】同义转述题。定位句提到，实验结果表明这些学生更喜欢第二类作品，而对照组的学生则最喜欢经典之作。卡廷的学生之所以变得喜欢第二类作品仅仅是因为他们看到这些作品的次数更多。题干中的his subjects对应定位句中的the fstudents，题于中的because of more exposure是J对应定位句中because they had seen them more l的同义转述，故答案为c)。
50．【定位1由题干中的an art work和intrinsic value I定位到K)段首句。
K)【精析】细节推断题。定位句提到，艺术作品的内『在价值似乎正在变成最不重要的一个属性。但第二句紧接着指出，或许其重要性要高于社会科学家所认为的。题干是对定位句内容的概括。其中，题干中的intrinsic value对应定位句中的intrinsic quality，故答案为K)。
D)【精析】细节归纳题。定位句提到，评论家的赞誉和宣传息息相关。卡廷认为从单纯的曝光效果来看，学者和民众的作用是一样的。题干中的isclosely associated with对应定位句中的is deeply entwined with，故答案为D)。
52．【定位】由题干中的expose和tell the superior from the inferior定位到L)段倒数第二句。
L)【精析】同义转述题。定位旬提到，这就是为什么我们需要尽可能地多看、多读，我们接触到的好东西和坏东西越多，就越能明白它们的区别。题干中的expose ourselves t0对应定位句中的we’rexposed t0，题干中的the superior和the inferior分别对应定位句中的the good和the bad，故答案为L)。
53．【定位1由题干中的the history of the greatestpaintings定位到F)段首句。
F)【精析】同义转述题。定位句提到，沃茨研究了“有史以来最伟大的油画”的历史后发现，《蒙娜丽莎》在大部分时期都相对来说没有名气。题干中的agreat work of art指的就是定位句中的the “Mona Lisa”，题干中的experience years ofneglect对应定位句中的remained in relative obscurity，故答案为F)。
J)【精析】同义转述题。该定位句提到，虽然20世纪60年代就没有严格的等级区分了，人们仍然会用文化来象征身份。题干中的a mark对应定位句中的a badge，distinguish对应定位句中的distinction，故答案为J)。
【文章来源】本文选自2014年1月2日刊登在TIME(《时代》)上的一篇标题为“The Bank Stops Here，，(《银行停止在这里》)的文章。
56．【定位】NN-P0的many people和the biggest『c)[解析l细节辨认题。定位句指出，很多人都认为problem定位到首段第三句。失业是这个时代主要的经济和社会关注点，故答案为C)。
57．【定位】由题干中的the 2008 financial crisis和人物关键词Yellen定位到第二段前两句。
58．【定位】根据题干中的greater concern和the general public定位到第四段第二句。B)【精析】推理判断题。由第四段第一句可知，一些专家担心耶伦会忽视通货膨胀问题，而定位句反驳了这一观点，指出更多人担心的恰恰与之相反，即由于薪金相对比较固定，以及富人和长期失业者的经济差距不断加大，通货紧缩才是主要问题，故答案为B)。
59．【定位】由题干中的the Fed chief以及题文同序原则定位到第六段。
65．【定位】由题干中的just to survive和题文同序原则定位到最后一段。
Part IV Translation
The traditional Chinese hospitality requires that the foods served are so diverse that guests cannot eat up all the dishes. A typical Chinese banquet menu includes cold
2．第二句中，“其后的热菜”可参考译文采用被动语态followed by dishes served at the beginning, followed by hot dishes, such as meat, poultry,vegetables, and so on. At most banquets, the whole fish is considered to be essential,unless various kinds of seafood have been served. Nowadays, Chinese people would like to combine Western specialties with traditional Chinese dishes. Therefore, it is not rare to see steak being served, either.
Salad has also been catching on, although traditionally Chinese people generally dc not eat any food without cooking. There is usually at least a bowl of soup, served either at the beginning or in the end of the banquet. Desserts and fruit usually mark the end of the banquet. hot dishes，也可翻译为独立主格结构作伴随状语，即with the hot dishes followed；“例如肉类、鸡鸭、蔬菜等”是对“热菜”的举例说明，用such as引导。
4．第五句包含一个让步状语从句，表示“尽管”含义的让步状语从句常见的引导词有though，although，despite等；“流行”的表达方式有很多，如prevalent，popular，fashionable，catch on等。因此，本句也可以译为Despite the fact that traditionally Chinese people don’t like to eat any dishes without cookin9，
salad has also been popular。
5．翻译第六句中的“可以最先或最后上桌”时可处理为独立主格结构。最后一句的翻译相对简单，“标志……的结束”可用短语mark the end of…来表达。
cordial hospitality 盛情款待
the way to host visitors 待客之道
a sumptuous feast 丰盛的宴席
dinner party 晚餐派对
western-style food 西餐