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2016年12月英语四级真题(第二套)
来源:社科赛斯考研网 | 2019-03-28 18:43:38
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  英语四级考试正在紧张备考当中,英语四级的真题练习是必不可少的,所以社科赛斯考研网小编为同学们整理了2016年12月英语四级真题(第二套)。

        2016年12月大学英语四级考试真题(第2套)


  Part I
 
  Writing (30 minutes)
 
  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay. Suppose you have twooptions upon graduation: one is to take a job in a company and the other to go to agraduate school. You are to make a choice between the two. Write an essay to explain thereasons for your choice. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180words.
 
  Part Ⅱ
 
  Listening Comprehension (25 minutes )
 
  Section A
 
  Directions: In this section, you will hear three news reports. At the end of each newsreport, you will hear two or three questions. Both the news report and thequestions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you mustchoose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C and D .Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet I with a single linethrough the centre.
 
  Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard.
 
  1. A. To satisfy the curiosity of tourists.
 
  B. To replace two old stone bridges.
 
  C. To enable tourists to visit Goat Island.
 
  D. To improve utility services in the state.
 
  2. A. Countless tree limbs.
 
  B. A few skeletons.
 
  C. Lots of wrecked boats and ships.
 
  D. Millions of coins on the bottom.
 
  Questions 3 and 4 are based on the news report you have just heard.
 
  3. A. It suspended diplomatic relations with Libya.
 
  B. It urged tourists to leave Tunisia immediately.
 
  C. It shut down two border crossings with Libya.
 
  D. It launched a fierce attack against Islamic State.
 
  4. A. Advise Tunisian civilians on how to take safety precautions.
 
  B. Track down the organization responsible for the terrorist attack.
 
  C. Train qualified security personnel for the Tunisian government.
 
  D. Devise a monitoring system on the Tunisian border with Libya.
 
  Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard.
 
  5. A. An environment-friendly battery.
 
  B. An energy-saving mobile phone.
 
  C. A plant-powered mobile phone charger.
 
  D. A device to help plants absorb sunlight.
 
  6. A. While sitting in their school's courtyard.
 
  B. While playing games on their phones.
 
  C. While solving a mathematical problem.
 
  D. While doing a chemical experiment.
 
  7. A. It increases the applications of mobile phones.
 
  B. It speeds up the process of photosynthesis.
 
  C. It improves the reception of mobile phones.
 
  D. It collects the energy released by plants.
 
  Section B
 
  Directions: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation,you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken onlyonce. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choicesmarked A, B, C and D. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1with a single line through the centre.
 
  Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
 
  8. A. He visited the workshops in the Grimsby plant.
 
  B. He called the woman and left her a message.
 
  C. He used stand-ins as replacements on all lines.
 
  D. He asked a technician to fix the broken production line.
 
  9. A. It is the most modern production line.
 
  B. It assembles super-intelligent robots.
 
  C. It has stopped working completely.
 
  D. It is going to be upgraded soon.
 
  10. A. To seek her permission.
 
  B. To place an order for robots.
 
  C. To request her to return at once.
 
  D. To ask for Tom's phone number.
 
  11. A. She is on duty.
 
  B. She is having her day off.
 
  C. She is on sick leave.
 
  D. She is abroad on business.
 
  Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
 
  12. A. He saved a baby boy's life.
 
  B. He wanted to be a superhero.
 
  C. He prevented a train crash.
 
  D. He was a witness to an accident.
 
  13. A. He has a 9-month-old boy.
 
  B. He is currently unemployed.
 
  C. He enjoys the interview.
 
  D. He commutes by subway.
 
  14. A. A rock on the tracks.
 
  B. A misplaced pushchair.
 
  C. A strong wind.
 
  D. A speeding car.
 
  15. A. She stood motionless in shock.
 
  B. She cried bitterly.
 
  C. She called the police at once.
 
  D. She shouted for help.
 
  Section C
 
  Directions: In this section, you will hear three passages. At the end of each passage, you will hearthree or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once.After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices markedA, B, C and D. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet I with asingle line through the centre.
 
  Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
 
  16. A. She inherited her family ice-cream business in Billings.
 
  B. She loved the ice-cream business more than teaching primary school.
 
  C. She started an ice-cream business to finance her daughter's education.
 
  D. She wanted to have an ice-cream truck when she was a little girl.
 
  17. A. To preserve a tradition.
 
  B. To amuse her daughter.
 
  C. To help local education.
 
  D. To make some extra money.
 
  18. A. To raise money for business expansion.
 
  B. To make her truck attractive to children.
 
  C. To allow poor kids to have ice-cream too.
 
  D. To teach kids the value of mutual support.
 
  Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
 
  19. A. The reasons for imposing taxes.
 
  B. The various services money can buy.
 
  C. The various burdens on ordinary citizens.
 
  D. The function of money in the modem world.
 
  20. A. Educating and training citizens.
 
  B. Improving public transportation.
 
  C. Protecting people's life and property.
 
  D. Building hospitals and public libraries.
 
  21. A. By asking for donations.
 
  B. By selling public lands.
 
  C. By selling government bonds.
 
  D. By exploiting natural resources.
 
  Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
 
  22. A. It is located at the center of the European continent.
 
  B. It relies on tourism as its chief source of revenues.
 
  C. It contains less than a square mile of land.
 
  D. It is surrounded by France on three sides.
 
  23. A. Its beauty is frequently mentioned in American media.
 
  B. Its ruler Prince Rainier married an American actress.
 
  C. It is where many American movies are shot.
 
  D. It is a favorite place Americans like to visit.
 
  24. A. Tobacco.
 
  B. Potatoes.
 
  C. Machinery.
 
  D. Clothing.
 
  25. A. European history.
 
  B. European geography.
 
  C. Small countries in Europe.
 
  D. Tourist attractions in Europe.
 
  Part Ⅲ
 
  Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
 
  Section A
 
  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one wordfor each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read thepassage through carefully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank isidentified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on AnswerSheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in thebank more than once.
 
  Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.
 
  The ocean is heating up. That's the conclusion of a new study that finds that Earth's oceans now26heat at twice the rate they did 18 years ago. Around half of ocean heat intake since 1865 hastaken place since 1997, researchers report online in Nature Climate Change.
 
  Warming waters are known to27 to coral bleaching (珊瑚白化) and they take up more spacethan cooler waters, raising sea28While the top of the ocean is well studied, its depths are moredifficult to 29The researchers gathered 150 years of ocean temperature data in order to get abetter30 of heat absorption from surface to seabed. They gathered together temperature readingscollected by everything from a 19th century31 of British naval ships to modem automated oceanprobes. The extensive data sources,32 with computer simulations ( 计算机模拟), created atimeline of ocean temperature changes, including cooling from volcanic outbreaks and warming fromfossil fuel33
 
  About 35 percent of the heat taken in by the oceans during the industrial era now resides at a34 of more than 700 meters, the researchers found. They say they're35whether the deep-seawarming canceled out warming at the sea's surface.
 
  A. absorb
 
  B. Combined
 
  C. Contribute
 
  D. depth
 
  E. emissions
 
  F. excursion
 
  G. explore
 
  H. floor
 
  I. heights
 
  J. indifferent
 
  K. levels
 
  L. mixed
 
  M. picture
 
  N. unsure
 
  O. voyage
 
  Section B
 
  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Eachstatement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraphfrom which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once.Each paragraph is marked with a letter.Answer the questions by marking thecorresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
 
  The Secret to Raising Smart Kids
 
  A) I first began to investigate the basis of human motivation--and how people persevere aftersetbacks--as a psychology graduate student at Yale University in the 1960s. Animal experiments bypsychologists at the University of Pennsylvania had shown that after repeated failures, most animalsconclude that a situation is hopeless and beyond their control. After such an experience an animaloften remains passive even when it can effect change--a state they called learned helplessness.
 
  B) People can learn to be helpless, too. Why do some students give up when they encounter difficulty,whereas others who are no more skilled continue to strive and learn? One answer, I soondiscovered, lay in people's beliefs about why they had failed.
 
  C) In particular, attributing poor performance to a lack of ability depresses motivation more than doesthe belief that lack of effort is to blame. When I told a group of school children who displayedhelpless behavior that a lack of effort led to their mistakes in math, they learned to keep tryingwhen the problems got tough. Another group of helpless children who were simply rewarded fortheir success on easier problems did not improve their ability to solve hard math problems. Theseexperiments indicated that a focus on effort can help resolve helplessness and generate success.
 
  D) Later, I developed a broader theory of what separates the two general classes of learners--helplessversus mastery-oriented. I realized these different types of students not only explain their failuresdifferently, but they also hold different "theories" of intelligence.The helpless ones believeintelligence is a fixed characteristic: you have only a certain amount, and that's that. I call this a"fixed mind-set (思维模式). " Mistakes crack their self-confidence because they attribute errors toa lack of ability, which they feel powerless to change. They avoid challenges because challengesmake mistakes more likely. The mastery-oriented children, on the other hand, think intelligence isnot fixed and can be developed through education and hard work. Such children believe challengesare energizing rather than intimidating (令人生畏); they offer opportunities to learn. Studentswith such a growth mind-set were destined (注定) for greater academic success and were quitelikely to outperform their counterparts.
 
  E) We validated these expectations in a study in which two other psychologists and I monitored 373students for two years during the transition to junior high school, when the work gets more difficultand the grading more strict, to determine how their mind-sets might affect their math grades. At thebeginning of seventh grade, we assessed the students' mind-sets by asking them to agree or disagreewith statements such as "Your intelligence is something very basic about you that you can't reallychange. " We then assessed their beliefs about other aspects of learning and looked to see whathappened to their grades.
 
  F) As predicted, the students with a growth mind-set felt that learning was a more important goal thangetting good grades. In addition, they held hard work in high regard. They understood that evengeniuses have to work hard. Confronted by a setback such as a disappointing test grade, studentswith a growth mind-set said they would study harder or try a different strategy. The students whoheld a fixed mind-set, however, were concerned about looking smart with less regard for learning.They had negative views of effort, believing that having to work hard was a sign of low ability.They thought that a person with talent or intelligence did not need to work hard to do well.Attributing a bad grade to their own lack of ability, those with a fixed mind-set said that they wouldstudy less in the future, try never to take that subject again and consider cheating on future tests.
 
  G) Such different outlooks had a dramatic impact on performance. At the start of junior high, the mathachievement test scores of the students with a growth mind-set were comparable to those ofstudents who displayed a fixed mind-set. But as the work became more difficult, the students witha growth mind-set showed greater persistence. As a result, their math grades overtook those of theother students by the end of the first semester--and the gap between the two groups continued towiden during the two years we followed them.
 
  H) A fixed mind-set can also hinder communication and progress in the workplace and discourage orignore constructive criticism and advice. Research shows that managers who have a fixed mind-setare less likely to seek or welcome feedback from their employees than are managers with a growthmind-set.
 
  I) How do we transmit a growth mind-set to our children? One way is by telling stories aboutachievements that result from hard work. For instance, talking about mathematical geniuses whowere more or less born that way puts students in a fixed mind-set, but descriptions of greatmathematicians who fell in love with math and developed amazing skills produce a growth mind-set.
 
  J) In addition, parents and teachers can help children by providing explicit instruction regarding themind as a learning machine. I designed an eight-session workshop for 91 students whose mathgrades were declining in their first year of junior high.Forty-eight of the students receivedinstruction in study skills only, whereas the others attended a combination of study skills sessionsand classes in which they learned about the growth mind-set and how to apply it to schoolwork. Inthe growth mind-set classes, students read and discussed an article entitled "You Can Grow YourBrain. " They were taught that the brain is like a muscle that gets stronger with use and thatlearning prompts the brain to grow new connections. From such instruction, many students beganto see themselves as agents of their own brain development. Despite being unaware that there weretwo types of instruction, teachers reported significant motivational changes in 27% of the childrenin the growth mind-set workshop as compared with only 9% of students in the control group.
 
  K) Research is converging (汇聚) on the conclusion that great accomplishment and even genius istypically the result of years of passion and dedication and not something that flows naturally from agift.
 
  36. The author's experiment shows that students with a fixed mind-set believe having to work hard is an indication of low ability.
 
  37. Focusing on effort is effective in helping children overcome frustration and achieve success.
 
  38. We can cultivate a growth mind-set in children by telling success stories that emphasize hard work and love of learning.
 
  39. Students' belief about the cause of their failure explains their attitude toward setbacks.
 
  40. In the author's experiment, students with a growth mind-set showed greater perseverance in solving difficult math problems.
 
  41. The author conducted an experiment to find out about the influence of students' mind-sets on math learning.
 
  42. After failing again and again, most animals give up hope.
 
  43. Informing students about the brain as a learning machine is a good strategy to enhance their motivation for learning.
 
  44. People with a fixed mind-set believe that one's intelligence is unchangeable.
 
  45. In the workplace, feedback may not be so welcome to managers with a fixed mind-set.
 
  Section C
 
  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions orunfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A., B., C. AndD . You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on AnswerSheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
 
  Passage One
 
  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
 
  "Sugar, alcohol and tobacco," economist Adam Smith once wrote," are commodities which arenowhere necessaries of life, which have become objects of almost universal consumption, and whichare, therefore, extremely popular subjects of taxation. "
 
  Two and a haft centuries on, most countries impose some sort of tax on alcohol and tobacco. Withsurging obesity levels putting increasing strain on public health systems, governments around the worldhave begun to toy with the idea of taxing sugar as well.
 
  Whether such taxes work is a matter of debate. A preliminary review of Mexico's taxation found afall in purchases of taxed drinks as well as a rise in sales of untaxed and healthier drinks. By contrast,a Danish tax on foods high in fats was abandoned a year after its introduction, amid claims thatconsumers were avoiding it by crossing the border to Germany to satisfy their desire for cheaper, fattierfare.
 
  The food industry has, in general, been firmly opposed to such direct government action.Nonetheless, the renewed focus on waistlines means that industry groups are under pressure todemonstrate their products are healthy as well as tasty.
 
  Over the past three decades, the industry has made some efforts to improve the quality of itsofferings. For example, some drink manufacturers have cut the amount of sugar in their beverages.
 
  Many of the reductions over the past 30 years have been achieved either by reducing the amount ofsugar, salt or fat in a product, or by finding an alternative ingredient. More recently, however, somecompanies have been investing money in a more ambitious undertaking: learning how to adjust thefundamental make-up of the food they sell. For example, having salt on the outside, but none on theinside, reduces the salt content without changing the taste.
 
  While reformulating recipes ( 配方) is one way to improve public health, it should be part of amulti-sided approach. The key is to remember that there is not just one solution. To deal with obesity,a mixture of approaches--including reformulation, taxation and adjusting portion sizes--will beneeded. There is no silver bullet.
 
  46. What did Adam Smith say about sugar, alcohol and .tobacco?
 
  A. They were profitable to manufacture.
 
  B. They were in ever-increasing demand.
 
  C. They were subject to taxation almost everywhere.
 
  D. They were no longer considered necessities of life.
 
  47. Why have many countries started to consider taxing sugar?
 
  A. They are under growing pressure to balance their national budgets.
 
  B. They find it ever harder to cope with sugar-induced health problems.
 
  C. The practice of taxing alcohol and tobacco has proved both popular and profitable.
 
  D. The sugar industry is overtaking alcohol and tobacco business in generating profits.
 
  48. What do we learn about Danish taxation on fat-rich foods?
 
  A. It did not work out as well as was expected.
 
  B. It gave rise to a lot of problems on the border.
 
  C. It could not succeed without German cooperation.
 
  D. It met with firm opposition from the food industry.
 
  49. What is the more recent effort by food companies to make foods and drinks both healthy and tasty?
 
  A. Replacing sugar or salt with alternative ingredients.
 
  B. Setting a limit on the amount of sugar or salt in their products.
 
  C. Investing in research to find ways to adapt to consumers' needs.
 
  D. Adjusting the physical composition of their products.
 
  50. What does the author mean by saying, at the end of the passage, "There is no silver bullet" ( Line 4, Para.7)?
 
  A. There is no single easy quick solution to the problem.
 
  B. There is no hope of success without public cooperation.
 
  C. There is no hurry in finding ways to solve the obesity problem.D. There is no effective way to reduce people's sugar consumption.
 
  Passage Two
 
  Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
 
  You may have heard some of the fashion industry horror stories: models eating tissues or cottonballs to hold off hunger, and models collapsing from hunger-induced heart attacks just seconds afterthey step off the runway.
 
  Excessively skinny models have been a point of controversy for decades, and two researchers saya model's body mass should be a workplace health and safety issue. In an editorial released Monday inthe American Journal of Public Health, Katherine Record and Bryn Austin made their case forgovernment regulation of the fashion industry.
 
  The average international runway model has a body mass index (BMI) under 16--low enough toindicate starvation by the World Health Organization's standard. And Record and Austin are worried notjust about the models themselves, but about the vast number of girls and women their images influence.
 
  "Especially girls and teens," says Record. "Seventy percent of girls aged 10 to 18 report that theydefine perfect body image based on what they see in magazines. " That's especially worrying, she says,given that anorexia (厌食症) results in more deaths than does any other mental illness, according tothe National Institute of Mental Health.
 
  It's commonly known that certain diseases are linked with occupations like lung disease in coalminers. Professional fashion models are particularly vulnerable to eating disorders resulting fromoccupational demands to maintain extreme thinness.
 
  Record's suggestion is to prohibit agents from hiring models with a BMI below 18.
 
  In April, France passed a law setting lower limits for a model's weight. Agents and fashion houseswho hire models with a BMI under 18 could pay $ 82,000 in fines and spend up to 6 months in jail.Regulating the fashion industry in the United States won't be easy, Record says. But with the new rulesin France, U.S. support could make a difference. "A designer can't survive without participating inParis Fashion Week", she says, adding," Our argument is that the same would be true of New YorkFashion Week. "
 
  51. What do Record and Austin say about fashion models' body mass?
 
  A. It has caused needless controversy.
 
  B. It is but a matter of personal taste.
 
  C. It is the focus of the modeling business.
 
  D. It affects models' health and safety.
 
  52. What are Record and Austin advocating in the Monday editorial?
 
  A. A change in the public's view of female beauty.
 
  B. Government legislation about models' weight.
 
  C. Elimination of forced weight loss by models.
 
  D. Prohibition of models eating non-food stuff.
 
  53. Why are Record and Austin especially worried about the low body mass index of models?
 
  A. It contributes to many mental illnesses.
 
  B. It defines the future of the fashion industry.
 
  C. It has great influence on numerous girls and women.
 
  D. It keeps many otherwise qualified women off the runway.
 
  54. What do we learn about France's fashion industry?
 
  A. It has difficulty hiring models.
 
  B. It has now a new law to follow.
 
  C. It allows girls under 18 on the runway.
 
  D. It has overtaken that of the United States.
 
  55. What does Record expect of New York Fashion Week?
 
  A. It will create a completely new set of rules.
 
  B. It will do better than Paris Fashion Week.
 
  C. It will differ from Paris Fashion Week.
 
  D. It will have models with a higher BMI.
 
  Part Ⅳ
 
  Translation( 30 minutes )
 
  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese intoEnglish. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
 
  在中国文化中,黄颜色是一种很重要的颜色,因为它具有独特的象征意义。在圭蝗(feudal)社会中,它象征统治者的权力和权威。那时,黄色是专为皇帝使用的颜色,皇家宫殿全都漆成黄色,皇袍总是黄色的,而普通老百姓是禁止穿黄色衣服的。在中国,黄色也是收获的象征。秋天庄稼成熟时,田野变得一片金黄。人们兴高采烈,庆祝丰收。
 
  2016年12月大学英语四级考试真题答案与详解(第2套)
 
  Part IWriting
 
  范文点评
 
  高分范文
 
  Going to Graduate School Is a Better Choice
 
  ①If given two options after graduation, that is, totake a job in a company or to go to a graduate school, I'dprefer the latter.
 
  ② First and foremost, it is widely acknowledged thata higher level of education means better payments and moreopportunities in the future in China. ③ Therefore, I thinkanother two or three years' investment in graduate educationmust be worthwhile in the long run. ④ Secondly, I lovemy major and have a strong desire to further my study soas to deeply explore some academic issues in this field.⑤Finally, the job market for undergraduate students is toocompetitive for average students like me to find asatisfying job.⑥ Thus, it would be a better choice if Icould obtain a master's degree.
 
  ⑦ Considering the three reasons listed above, I wouldchoose to go to a graduate school after graduation to earn abetter future.
 
  作文全文翻译
 
  Part II Listening Comprehension
 
  Section A
 
  News Report one
 
  听力全文
 
  Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard.
 
  预览两道题各选项,由选项中出现的tourists,stone bridges,Goat Island和boats and ships等词可以推测,新闻内容与某个旅游景点有关,且该景点涉及水。
 
  1.Why does New York State want to turn off Niagara Falls?
 
  B。新闻中提到,纽约州公园系统想在未来的两三年内关闭美国境内的尼亚加拉大瀑布,以更换行人、公园车辆和设备通往山羊岛的两座石桥,这两座石桥距今已有115年的历史了。因此答案为B。
 
  2.What did people find when Niagara Falls were shut off in l9697
 
  D。新闻结尾提到,1969年尼亚加拉大瀑布被关闭后,人们发现河底有数百万的硬币。因此答案为D。
 
  News Report Two
 
  听力全文
 
  Questions 3 and 4 are based on the news report you have just heard.
 
  预览两道题各选项,由选项中出现的Libya,Tunisia,border crossings,terrorist attack和security等词可以推测,新闻内容与突尼斯和利比亚边境发生的恐怖袭击有关。.
 
  3. C。
 
  4. D。
 
  News Report Three
 
  听力全文
 
  Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard.
 
  5. C。
 
  6. A。
 
  7. D。
 
  Conversation One
 
  听力全文
 
  Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
 
  8. B。
 
  9. C。
 
  10. A。
 
  11. B。
 
  Conversation Two
 
  W: This is Kerry Burke from New York Daily News.(12/13) I'm speaking to Delroy Simmonds, anunemployed Brooklyn man who missed a job interview Tuesday for the best of reasons : He was saving thelife of a 9-month-old boy who was blown into the path of an oncoming subway train by a high wind.
 
  M: Everybody is making me out to be some sort of superhero. I'm just an ordinary person, and a father of two. Anybody in that situation would have done what I did.
 
  W: You were going to an interview when the incident occurred, right?
 
  M: Yes, I was on my way to apply for a maintenance position. I've been looking for a job for a year and more. I'm looking for something to support my family.
 
  W: Tell us what happened at the station.
 
  M: (14) There was a strong wind. It had to be 30 to 40 miles an hour. There was a woman with four kids. One was in a pushchair. The wind blew the baby onto the tracks.
 
  W: (15) Witnesses said people were looking on in horror as the child's mother, identified by sources as MariaZamara, stood frozen in shock. In the distance, people could see the train rounding a bend, headed intothe station.I guess you were not aware of any of these。right?
 
  M:N0.I just jumped down and grabbed the baby.The train was coming around the corner as I lifted the babyfrom the tracks.I really wasn’t thinking.
 
  W:What an amazing story.Thank you very much.
 
  Questions l2 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
 
  12. A。
 
  13. B。
 
  14. C。
 
  15. A。
 
  Section C
 
  Passage One
 
  听力全文
 
  Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
 
  预览三道题各选项,由选项中出现的ice.cream business,ice.cream truck和ice.cream等词可以推测,短文内容与冰激凌生意有关。
 
  16. D。
 
  17. A。
 
  18. C。
 
  Passage Two
 
  听力全文
 
  Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
 
  预览三道题各选项,由选项中出现的taxes,money,Educating,Improving,Protecting和Building等词可以推测,短文内容与税收及其用途有关。19.What does the speaker mainly talk about?
 
  A。短文开头提到,我们通过交税来享受这些服务,而在短文结尾又提到,我们必须为让我们的生活变得更加舒适的服务支付一定的费用。由此可知,本文主要谈论的是交税的原因,故答案为A。
 
  20.What is most of the government money used for?
 
  C。短文中提到,每个政府的主要职能就是保护人身和财产安全,超过四分之三的政府开销都用在此目的上。因此答案为C。
 
  21.How did the government raise money to pay public bills in the past?
 
  B。短文中提到,以前政府通过出售公有土地来筹集钱款,故答案为B。
 
  Passage Three
 
  听力全文
 
  Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
 
  22. D.
 
  23. B。
 
  24. D。
 
  25. C.
 
  Part ⅢReading Comprehension
 
  Section A
 
  阅读全文翻译
 
  选项归类
 
  名词:
 
  D.depth深度,深厚;
 
  E.emissions排放;
 
  F.excursion远足,短途旅游;
 
  H.floor地板,楼层;
 
  I.heights高度,高地;
 
  K.levels水平面,水平;
 
  M.picture局面,图画;
 
  0.voyage航行,航程
 
  动词:
 
  A.absorb吸收,吸引……的注意;
 
  B.combined使结合;
 
  C.contribute是(造成某情况)的一个原因,贡献;
 
  G.explore探索,探险;
 
  K.levels使成水平,使平等;
 
  L.mixed使混合,混淆;
 
  M.picture想象,描述
 
  形容词:
 
  B.combined联合的;
 
  J.indifferent漠不关心的;
 
  L.mixed混合的,混淆的;
 
  N.unsure不确定的,缺乏信心的
 
  26.A.absorb。
 
  27.C.contribute。
 
  28.K.levels。
 
  29.G.explore。
 
  30.M.picture。
 
  31.O.voyage。
 
  32.B.combined。
 
  33.E.emissions。
 
  34.D.depth。
 
  35.N.unsure。
 
  阅读全文翻译
 
  36. F。
 
  37. Focusing on effort is effective in helping children overcome frustration and achieve success.
 
  专注于努力在帮助孩子战胜挫折,获得成功方面是有效的=由题干中的Focusing on effort和achieve success定位到原文画线处
 
  该段第一句提到,比起归因于缺乏努力,把糟糕的表现归因于缺乏能力对积极性的打击更大。因此应该让孩子专注于付出努力会帮助他们勇敢地面对挫折,获得成功。题干二中的overcome frustration对应原文中的resolve helplessness,achieve对应generate,故答案为C。
 
  38. I。
 
  39. B。
 
  40. In the author's experiment, students with a growth mind-set showed greater perseverance in solving difficult math problems.
 
  在作者的实验中,拥有成长思维模式的学生在解决数学难题时表现出更强大的毅力,
 
  由题干中的greater perseverance和difficult定位到原文画线处。
 
  该段开头提到这两种不同看法或者说两种思维模式会对学生的学业表现产生重大影响,但这种影响并不会在一开始显现出来。当课程的难度逐渐增大时,拥有成长思维模式的学生会表现出更强大的毅力。题干中的perseverance对应原文中的persistence,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为G。
 
  41. E。
 
  42. After failing again and again, most animals give up hope.
 
  在一次又一次的失败之后,大多数动物都会放弃希望。
 
  由题干中的failing again and again和give up hope定位到原文画线处。
 
  定位句指出宾夕法尼亚大学的心理学家们做的动物实验表明,大多数动物在遭遇多次失败之后,都会认为没有希望了,对于糟糕的情况它们束手无策,、题干中的failing again and again对应原文中的repeated failures:give up hope对应原文中的hopeless,故答案为A。
 
  43. J。
 
  44. D。
 
  45. H。
 
  Section C
 
  Passage One
 
  阅读全文翻译
 
  46.C。
 
  47.B。
 
  48.A。由题干中Danish taxation on fat-rich foods定位至第三段第三句:By contrast, a Danish tax on foods high in fats was abandoned a year after its introduction, amid claims that consumers were avoiding it by crossing the border to Germany to satisfy their desire for cheaper.fattier fare.
 
  事实细节题。第三段讨论了糖、酒、烟税的有效性问题。墨西哥的酒税是有效的,但是丹麦征收的高脂肪食品税却在执行一年后就被废除了,因为消费者为避免纳税可以跨境去德国购买能满足其需求且更便宜、脂肪含量更高的食品。由此可知,A.“没有像预期的那样有效”符合原文意思,故本题答案为A。
 
  B.“带来了许多边境问题”、C.“没有德国的合作不可能成功”在原文中均未提及,故均排除;D.“遇到了食品业的坚决反对”虽然符合第四段第一句的表述,但是第三段中并没有明确指出丹麦的政策是否遇到了抵制,故排除。
 
  49.D。
 
  50.D。查看解析
 
  Passage Two
 
  全文翻译
 
  你可能听说过时尚行业的一些恐怖故事:模特们吃下纸巾或棉花球来抵抗饥饿,她们走下T台后不久就因饥饿导致的心脏病而倒下。
 
  (51)几十年以来过瘦的模特一直是争论的焦点,两位研究者称模特的体重应该成为职场健康的安全问题。(52)在星期一发行的《美国公共健康杂志》上,凯瑟琳·雷科德和布瑞恩·奥斯汀阐述了政府加强时尚行业管理的理由。
 
  国际T台模特的体重指数(BMI)平均不到l6——按照世界卫生组织的标准足以表明饥饿。(53)雷科德和奥斯汀担忧的不仅仅是模特本身,还有受模特形象影响的大量盘性。
 
  “尤其是女孩和青少年。”雷科德说,“70%的l0——18岁女孩认为,她们根据在杂志上看到的来定义什么是完美体型。”雷科德说这尤其让人担心,因为根据国家精神健康研究院统计,厌食症导致的死亡人数比任何其他精神疾病都要多。
 
  众所周知,某些疾病与职业相关,例如煤矿工人易得肺病。由于职业需要保持极瘦的体型,专业模特尤其易患饮食失调。
 
  雷科德的建议是禁止模特代理公司雇佣体重指数低于l8的模特。
 
  (54)四月份,法国通过了一项法律,给模特的体重规定了更低的限制。模特代理公司和时尚企业如果雇用体重指数低于l8的模特,要缴纳82000美元的罚款,入狱最高达6个月。雷科德说监管美国的时尚业并不轻松。但是随着法国通过了新法律,在美国的支持会大有不同。(55)她补充道,“如果不参加巴黎时尚周,一个设计师都无法生存。我们认为.纽约时尚周也应如此。”
 
  详解详析
 
  51.D。
 
  52.B。
 
  53.C。
 
  54.B。
 
  55.D。
 
  Part IV
 
  Translation
 
  参考译文
 
  In Chinese culture, yellow is a color occupying a fairly prominent position, which is endowed with unique symbolic significance. In the feudal society, yellow stands for the ruler's power and authority. At that time,yellow was specially designed for the emperor, with the royal palace painted yellow and the imperial robealways being yellow while the ordinary people were never being permitted to wear yellow. In China, yellow is also the symbol of harvest. When crops are ripening in the fall, farmers celebrate the harvest in high spirits,with the fields taldng on a vast expanse of golden appearance.

  
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