Directions: Suppose you are asked to give advice on whether to attend college at home or abroad, write an essay to state your opinion. You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Nowadays, there has been a heated discussion as to a better choice between attending college at home and abroad. Views on the topic vary greatly among people from different walks of life. Some believe that it is a better choice to study in domestic colleges, but others consider it better to study abroad. I totally agree with the latter idea for the reasons presented below. To begin with, it harms the society in that the greater the competition is, the higher the recruitment requirements will become. Therefore, with experiences of studying abroad, graduates will become more competitive in job hunting. Furthermore, it is beneficial to the students themselves to study abroad. Without the choice to pursue overseas study, many great scholars today would never have achieved such great success. From my perspective, it is crucial that the government should encourage people to pursue overseas study. Also it is crucial that people should understand the meaning and value of attending college abroad. Only in this way can we achieve greater success.
Directions: Suppose you are asked to give advice on whether to major in humanities or science, write an essay to state your opinion. You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Living in a world which is full of changes and challenges,we are confronted with new problems every single day. Of all the issues, one might concern the high school graduates the most, and it is if there are two options: to major in science or humanities. As for me, I prefer the latter.
Why,you may wonder, should I prefer to major in humanities. The reasons responsible for it can be listed as follows .
Among the most important reasons cited by people is that to major in humanities，directly or indirectly，can not only enrich our basic knowledge about the diversified culture but also sharpen one’s insight in daily routine，which is of great importance in one’s growth.
What’s more, to study humanities can give us an independent personality and a deeper vision towards the world, if it were not for those two attributes, how could we achieve great goals in this dog-eat-dog world.
Above all, in such a society where emphasis，more often than not，is laid on the depth of one’s thought, to choose humanities as one’s major, must be the best way .
To major humanities, so at least it seems to me, is preferable for college students, if they had the chance, in the process of which we will develop an innovative thought mode.
As a proverb goes ,there is no difficulty that an innovative thought mode can not solve, no door that an innovative thought mode can not open, no mountain that an innovative thought mode can not surmount.
Directions: Suppose you are asked to give advice on whether to attend a vocational college or a university, write an essay to state your opinion. You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
With the flourish of education industry, modern students are faced with more alternatives to continue their further education. Both attending a vocational college or a university serves as two main options for the high school graduates. In terms of which to choose and what to be taken into consideration, I shall advise as follows:
Primarily, self-orientation matters the most when it comes to a issue like this. Obviously, the main task of vocational college is cultivating human resource with practical capability. Instead, university serves as the cradle of academic researchers in different areas. Therefore, being aware of your self-expectation with a clear future blueprint lays a foundation for this important decision.
Apart from what has been mentioned above, personal interest also plays a key role in it. For both passion and motivation are derived from interest, which not only decide how far you can reach academically and professionally but also how happy and fulfilled you will be .
To sum up, a clear recognition of self orientation and personal interest will decide whether you will tick the box of vocational college or university. Only in this way can we get the most out of the further education.
Long conversation 1
Q1: B Having friendly colleagues
解析：原文中前半部分男士说到：“The most important factor for the majority of the people interviewed was having friendly, supportive colleagues.” 对于大部分接受采访的人来说，最重要的因素是拥有友好的、互相支持的同事们。
解析：原文中部男士说到：“However, 20% of employees described themselves as being unhappy.” 20%的员工说他们工作得不开心。
Q3：A those of a small size
解析：后半部男士提到：“First of all, small is beautiful: people definitely prefer working for smaller organizations or companies with less than 100 staff.” 首先小就是好：人们绝对偏爱在少于100人的小公司工作。
Q4：C They can better balance work and life
解析：原文中男士说到：“And workers on part-time contracts, who only work 4 or 5 hours a day, are happier than those who work full-time. The researchers concluded that this is probably due to a better work-life balance.” 每天工作4、5个小时的兼职人员比全职人员要开心，这可能是由于一种更好的工作与生活之间的平衡。
Long conversation 2
Q5：D It is a collection of photos.
解析：原文前部分男士提到：“In 2006, when the concert hall of the city of Bruges asked me to take some pictures for a catalogue for a new concert season around the theme of water.” 在2006年，布鲁日城市音乐厅请我帮他们完成一个以水为主题的摄影系列。所以这本书是一个摄影系列。
Q6: C When taking pictures for a concert catalogue.
解析：原文前部分男士提到：“In 2006, when the concert hall of the city of Bruges asked me to take some pictures for a catalogue for a new concert season around the theme of water.” 在2006年，布鲁日城市音乐厅请我帮他们完成一个以水为主题的摄影系列。所以是在拍摄这个系列时产生的灵感。
Q7：A The entire European coastline will be submerged.
解析：原文中部提到：“It is clear now that it is a matter of time before the entire European coastline disappears under water.” 很明确，整个欧洲海岸线的消失只是时间的问题，由此判断出正确答案。
Q8：D Tourists use wooden paths to reach their hotels in the morning.
解析：文章结尾提到：“Also, Venice, the city eternally threatened by the sea, where every morning wooden pathways have to be set up to allow tourists to reach their hotels.” 威尼斯全程都被海洋威胁着，每天早上人们都要搭上木桥，游客们才能顺利到达旅馆。
Q9: C they spend too much time anticipating their defeat
解析：原文第一句说到：“When facing a new situation, some people tend to rehearse their defeat by spending too much time anticipating the worst.” 当面临新的挑战， 人们总花很多时间去想最坏的情况。由此得出正确答案。
Q10：D Thinking has the same effect on the nervous system as doing
解析：原文提到：“Research conducted at Stanford University shows a mental image fires the nerve system the same way as actually doing something.” 斯坦福大学发布的研究表明，心理暗示对神经系统作用巨大，会最终导致同样的结果。
Q11：C Picture themselves succeeding
Q12：B She won her first jury trail
Q 13: C It helps people to avoid developing breast cancer
解析：文章前部分提到：“Telling them that eating lots of high-fiber foods could reduce the risk of breast cancer before middle age.” 摄入大量高纤维食品合一降低中年时期患乳腺癌的概率。
Q14：D It tracked their eating habits since their adolescence
解析：文章中间提到：“It turns out that those who consumed the highest levels of fiber during adolescence had a lower risk of developing breast cancer.” 研究发现青春期摄入越多纤维的女性在未来患乳腺癌的概率越低。所以答案是这项研究从她们青春期开始追踪的。
Q15：A Fiber may help to reduce hormones in the body
解析：文章后半部分提到：“The finding points to long-standing evidence that fiber may reduce circulating female hormone levels,” 研究表明长期实验的证据表明纤维可以降低女性体内的荷尔蒙。
Q16:B Conducting research on consumer behaviour
解析：原文第一句提到：“Well my current research is really about consumer behavior.” 最近我在关注消费者行为这个课题。
Q17：D It is an act of socialisting
解析：文章中部提到：“One of the things that I've identified is that drinking for people say between the ages of 18 and 24 is all about the social activity.” 我的一项发现是年龄在18至24岁的人喝酒是出于社交原因。
Q18：A They spent a week studying their own purchasing bahaviour.
解析：文章最后提到：“last year my students spent a week looking at their own purchasing and analyzed it in detail from shopping to the relationship that they have with their retail banks and their mobile phone providers.” 去年我的学生花了一周时间去关注、分析他们的购物情况，以及他们和银行、手机制造商的关系。
Q19: D It is likely to give up paper money in the near future
解析：在听力原文中说到Sweden was the first European country to print and use paper money, but it may soon do away with physical currencies. 瑞典是欧洲第一个印刷并使用纸币的国家，但可能不久就会停止使用。
Q20：C whether the absence of physical currency causes a person to spend more
解析：在听力原文中说到Barrett wanted to find out if the absence of physical currency does indeed cause a person to spend more, so she decided to conduct an experiment a few months ago. Barrett想知道不带现金是否会导致人们花更多的钱，所以几个月前她决定做一个实验。
Q21：C the restaurant car accepted cash only
解析：在听力原文中说到On the way, there was an announcement that the restaurant car was not currently accepting credit cards. The train cars were filled with groans because many of the passengers were traveling without cash. 在火车上，她发现餐车不接受信用卡消费，结果车上便充满了呻吟因为很多乘客都没有带现金。
Q22：A By putting into envelopes
解析：在听力原文中说到My parents, when they were younger, used to budget by putting money into envelopes— they'd get paid and they'd immediately separate the cash into piles and put them in envelopes, so they knew what they had to spend week by week. 我父母那一代，当他们年轻的时候，他们会把钱放进信封里来做预算。当他们拿到工资后，他们便立马把现金分为几份并放进信封，这样他们就能知道每周要花多少钱。
Q23：B Chrome hunger
解析：原文提到：“So let’s start with a few problems. Right now, a billion people are chronically hungry.” 让我们先来说几个问题。现在有上十亿人长期处于饥饿状态。
Q24：B About half of them are unintended
解析：在听力原文中说到About half of all pregnancies globally are unintended.全球有近五成意外受孕。
Q25：A It is essential to the wellbeing of all species on earth
解析：原文提到：“It’s not only the study of human population, but the populations of non-human species. Demography also includes the study of non-living objects.” 人口统计学，不仅是关于人类的种群，也关乎于非人类种群，还包括无生命的对象。由此可见，人口问题对所有物种来说都是必要的。
Part III Reading comprehension (40 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single through the center. You may not use any of the word in the bank more than once.
Let’s all stop judging people who talk to themselves. New research says that those who can’t seem to keep their inner monologues (独白) in are actually more likely to stay on task, remain ___26___ better and show improved perception capabilities. Not bad, really, for some extra muttering.
According to a series of experiments published in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology by professors Gary Lupyan and Daniel Swignley, the act of using verbal clues to ___27___ mental pictures helps people function quicker.
In one experiment, they showed pictures of various objects to twenty ___28___ and asked them to find just one of those, a banana. Half were ___29___ to repeat out loud what they were looking for and the other half kept their lips ___30___ . Those who talked to themselves found the banana slightly faster than those who didn’t, the researchers say. In other experiments, Lupyan and Swignley found that ___31___ the name of a common product when on the hunt for it helped quicken someone’s pace, but talking about uncommon items showed no advantage and slowed you down.
Common research has long held that talking themselves through a task helps children learn, although doing so when you’ve ___32___ matured is not a great sign of ___33___The two professors hope to refute that idea, ___34___ that just as when kids walk themselves through a process, adults can benefit from using language not just to communicate, but also to help “augment thinking”.
Of course, you are still encouraged to keep the talking at library tones and, whatever you do, keep the information you share simple, like a grocery list. At any ___35___ , there’s still such a thing as too much information.
35. N) volume
[A] The lives of children from rich and poor American families look more different than they have in decades.
[B] Well-off families are ruled by calendars. with children enrolled in ballet. soccer and after-school programs, according to a new Pew Research Center survey There are usually two parents, who spend a lot of time reading to children and worrying about their anxiety levels and hectic schedules
[C] In poor families. however. children tend to spend their time at home or with extended family. the survey found They are more likely to grow up in neighborhoods that their parents say aren't great for raising children. and their parents worry about them getting shot, beaten up or in trouble with the law
[D] The class differences m child rearing are growing, researchers say - a symptom of widening inequality with far-reaching consequences Different upbringings set children on different paths and can deepen socioeconomic divisions. Especially because education is strongly linked to earnings Children grow up learning the skills to succeed in their socioeconomic stratum. but not necessarily others
[E] "Early childhood experiences can be very consequential for children's long-term social, emotional and cognitive development." said Sean F.Reardon. professor of poverty and inequality in education at Stanford University -And because those influence educational success and later earnings. early childhood experiences cast a lifelong shadow" The cycle continues: Poorer parents have less time and fewer resources to invest in their children. which can leave children less prepared for school and work. which leads to lower earnings
[F] American parents want similar things for their children, the Pew report and past research have found: for them to be healthy and happy, honest and ethical, caring and compassionate There is no best parenting style or philosophy, researchers say, and across income groups, 92 percent of parents say they are doing a good
job at raising their children. Yet they are doing it quite differently Middle-class and higher-income parents see their children as projects in need of careful cultivation, says Annette Lareau, a University of Pennsylvania sociologist whose goundbreaking research on the topic was published in her book "Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race and Family Life " They try to develop their skills through close supervision and organized activities, and teach children to question authority figures and navigate elite institutions.
[G] Working-class parents, meanwhile, believe their children will naturally thrive, and give them far greater independence and time for free play They are taught to be compliant and deferential to adults There are benefits to both approaches Working-class children are happier, more independent, whine less and are closer with family members, Ms Lareau found Higher-income children are more likely to declare boredom and expect their parents to solve their problems Yet later on, the more affluent children end up in college and en route to the middle class, while working-class children tend to struggle Children from higher-income families are likely to have the skills to navigate bureaucracies and succeed in schools and workplaces, Ms.Lareau said
[H] "Do all parents want the most success for their children? Absolutely," she said "Do some strategies give children more advantages than others in institutions? Probably they do Will parents be damaging children if they have one fewer organized activity? No, I really doubt it "
[I] Social scientists say the differences arise in part because low-income parents have less money to spend on music class or preschool, and less flexible schedules to take children to museums or attend school events Extracurricular activities epitomize the differences in child rearing in the Pew survey, which was of a nationally representative sample of l,807 parents Of families earning more than $75,000 a year, 84 percent say their children have participated in organized sports over the past year, 64 percent have done volunteer work and 62 percent have taken lessons in music, dance or art Of families earning less than $30,000,59 percent of children have done sports, 37 percent have volunteered and 41 percent have taken arts classes
[J] Especially in affluent families, children start young Nearly half of high-earning, college-graduate
parents enrolled their children in arts classes before they were 5, compared with one-fifth oflow-income,
less-educated parents. Nonetheless, 20 percent of well-off parents say their children's schedules are too
hectic, compared with 8 percent of poorer parents.
[K] Another example is reading aloud, which studies have shown gives children bigger vocabularies and better reading comprehension in school Seventy-one percent of parents with a college degree say they do it every day, compared with 33 percent of those with a high school diploma or less, Pew found White parents are more likely than others to read to their children daily, as are married parents Most affluent parents enroll their children in preschool or day care, while low-income parents are more likely to depend on family members Discipline techniques vary by education level: 8 percent of those with a postgraduate degree say they often spank their children, compared with 22 percent of those with a high school degree or less
[L] The survey also probed attitudes and anxieties. Interestingly, parents' attitudes toward education do not seem to reflect their own educational background as much as a belief in the importance of education for upward mobility Most American parents say they are not concerned about their children's grades as long as they work hard But 50 percent of poor parents say it is extremely important to them that their children earn a college degree, compared with 39 percent of wealthier parents
[M] Less-educated parents, and poorer and black and Latino parents are more likely to believe that there is no such thing as too much involvement in a child's education Parents who are white, wealthy or college-educated say too much involvement can be bad Parental anxieties reflect their circumstances High-earning parents are much more likely to say they live in a good neighborhood for raising children While bullying is parents: greatest concern over all, nearly half of low-income parents worry their child will get shot, compared with one-fifth of high-income parents They are more worried about their children being depressed or anxious
[N] In the Pew survey, middle-class families earning between $30,000 and $75,000 a year fell right between working-class and high-earning parents on issues like the quality of their neighborhood for raising children,participation in extracurricular activities and involvement in their children's education
[O] Children were not always raised so differently The achievement gap between children from high- and low-income families is 30 percent t0 40 percent larger among children born in 2001 than those born 25 years earlier, according to Mr Reardon's research People used to live near people of different income levels;neighborhoods are now more segregated by income More than a quarter of children live in single-parent households - a historic high, according to Pew - and these children are three times as likely to live in poverty as those who live with married parents Meanwhile, growing income inequality has coincided with the increasing importance of a college degree for earning a middle-class wage
[P] Yet there are recent signs that the gap could be starting to shrink In the past decade, even as income inequality has grown, some of the socioeconomic differences in parenting, like reading to children and going to libraries, have narrowed
36. Working-class parents teach their children to be obedient and show respect to adults.
37. American parents, whether rich or poor, have similar expectations of their children despite different ways of parenting.
38. while rich parents are more concerned with their children’s psychological well-being, poor parents are more worried about their children’s safety.
39. The increasing differences in child rearing between rich and poor families reflect growing social inequality.
40. Parenting approaches of working-class and affluent families both have advantages.
41. Higher-income families and working-class families tend to live in different neighborhoods.
42. Physical punishment is used much less by well-educated parents.
43. Ms. Lareau doesn’t believe participating in fewer after-class activities will negatively affect children’s development.
44. Wealthy parents are concerned about their children’s mental health and busy schedules.
45. Some socioeconomic differences in child rearing have shrunk in the past ten years.
Questions 46 t0 50 are based on the following passage.
Open data-sharers are still in the minority in many fields,Although many rescarechers broadly agree that public access to raw data would accelerate science- because other scientists might be able to make advances not foreseen by the data's producers -most are reluctant to post the results of their own labours online (see Nature 461, 160-163; 2009) When Wolkovich, for instance, went hunting for the data from the 50 studies in her meta-analysis, only 8 data sets were available online, and many of the researchers whom she e-mailed refused to share their work Forced to extract data from tables or flgures in publications,Wolkovich's team could conduct only limited analyses
Some communities have agreed to share online - geneticists, for example, post DNA sequences at the GenBank repository, and astronomers are accustomed to accessing images of galaxies and stars from, say,the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a telescope that has observed some 500 million objects - but these remain the exception, not the rule Historically, scientists have objected to sharing for many reasons: it is a lot of work; until recently, good databases did not exist; grant funders were not pushing for sharing; it has been difficult to agree on standards for formatting data and the contextual information called metadata; and there
is no agreed way to assign credit for data
But the barriers are disappearing in part because journals and funding agencies worldwide are encouraging scientists to make their data public. Last year, the Royal Society in London said in its report Science as an Open Enterprise that scientists need to shift away from a research culture where data is viewed as pricate preserve " Funding agencies note that data paid for with public money should be public information, and the scientific community is recognizing that data can now be shared digitally in ways that were not possible before To match the growing demand, services are springing up to make it easier to publish research products online and enable other researchers to discover and cite them
Although exhortations to share data often concentrate on the moral advantages of sharing, the practice is not purely altruistic Researchers who share get plenty of personal benefits.including more connections with colleagues,improved visibility and increased citations The most successful sharers - those whose data are downloaded and cited the most often - get noticed, and their work gets used For example, one of the most popular data sets on multidisciplinary repository Dryad is about wood density around the world; it has been downloaded 5,700 times. Co-author Amy Zanne, a biologist at George Washington University in Washington DC, thinks that users probably range from climate-change researchers wanting to estimate how much carbon is stored in biomass, to foresters looking for information on different grades of' timber "I would much prefer to have my data used by the maximum number of people to ask their own questions," she says "It's important to allow readers and reviewers to see exactly how you arrive at your results Publishing data and code allows your science to be reproducible "
46 What do many researchers generally accept?
A It is imperative to protest scientist' patents
B Repositories are essential to scientitle research
C Open data sharing is most important to medical science
D.Open data sharing is conducive to scientific advancement
47 What is the attitude of most researchers towards making their own data public?
48 According to the passage, what might hinder open data sharing"
A The fear of massive copying
B The lack of a research culture
C.The belief that resacrch is private intellectual property
D. The concern that certain agencies may make a profit out of it
49 What helps lift some of the barriers to open data sharing?
A The ever-growing demand for big data
B The advantage of digital technology
C The changing attitude of journals and funders.
D The trend of social and economic development.
50 Dryad serves as an example to show how open data sharing ___
A is becoming increasingly popular
B benefits shares and users alike
C makes researchers successful
D saves both money and labor
Question 51 t0 55 are based on the following passage.
Beginning in the late sixteenth century, it became fashionable for young aristocrats to visit Europe and above all Rome, as the culmination（终极） of their classical education Thus the idea of the Grand Tour was born, a practice which introduced Englishmen, Germans, Scandinavians, and also Americans to the art and
culture of France and Italy for the next 300 years.Travel was arduous and costly throughout the period.possible only for a privileged class the same that produced gentlemen scientists authors antique experts and patrons of the arts.
The Grand Tourist was typically a young man with a thorough background in Greek and Latin literature as well as some leisure time some means and some interest in art.The German traveler Johann Winckelmann pioneered the field of art history with his comprehensive study of Greek and Roman sculpture.he was portrayed by his friend Anton Raphael Mengs at the beginning of his long residence in Rome.Most Grand Tourist however stayed for briefer periods and set out with souvenirs of their travels as well as an understanding of art and architecture formed by exposure to great masterpieces.
Since there were few museums anywhere in Eurpe before the end of the 18th century Grand Tourists often saw paintings and sculptures by gaining admission to private collections. and many were eager to acquire examples of Greco-Roman and Italian art for their own collections In England, where
architecture was increasingly seen as an aristocratic pursuit, noblemen often applied what they learned from the villas of Palladio in Veneto and the evocative ruins of Rome to their own country houses and gardens
51 What is said about the Grand Tour?
A)It was fashionable among young people of the time
B）It was unaffordable for ordinary people
C)It produced some famous European artists
D)It made a compulsory part of college education
52 What did Grand Tourists have in common?
A)They had much geographic knowledge
B)They were courageous and venturesome
C)They were couragcous and venturesome
D)They had enough travel and outdoor-life experience
53 How did Grand Tourists benefit from their travel?
A)They found inspiration in the world's greatest masterpieces
B)They got a better understanding of early human civilization
C)They developed an interest in the origin of modern art forms
D)They gained some knowledge of classical art and architecture
54 Why did many Grand Tourists visit the private collections?
A)They could buy unique souvenirs there to take back home
B)Europe hardly had any museums before 19th century
C)They found the antiques there more valuable
D)Private collections were of greater variety
55 How dis the Grand Tour influence the architecture in England?
A)There appeared more and more Roman-style buildings
B)Many aristocrats began to move into Roman-style villas
C)Aristocrats' country houses all had Roman-style gardens
D)Italian architects were hired to design houses and gardens
46. D) Open data sharing is conducive to scientific advancement.
47. A) Opposed.
48. C) The belief that research data is private intellectual property.
49. C) The changing attitude of journals and funders.
50. B) benefits sharers and users alike
51. [B] It was unaffordable for ordinary people.
52. [C] They were versed in literature and interested in art.
53. [D] They gained some knowledge of classical art and architecture.
54. [B] Europe hardly had any museums before the 19th century.
55. [A] There appeared more and more Roman-style buildings.
• Tang Dynasty started in 618 and ended in 907. It was the most glorious time in Chinese history. After developing for 300 years, Tang became the most prosperous country in the world. Its capital, Chang’An, was the biggest city in the world. At this time, economy was developed. Commerce was prosperous. Social order was stable. Even the borders were open to other countries. With urbanization and growing wealth, art and literature also thrived. Li Bai and Du Fu were famous poets. They were famous for their concise and natural works. Their poems touched the hearts of scholars and ordinary people. Even today, many children and adults are still reading and reciting their poems.
• Initiated from AD 618 to AD 907, the Tang dynasty was regarded as the most glorious period of Chinese history. After developing for 300 years, China in Tang dynasty became the most prosperous country in the world, and its capital Chang’an the biggest metropolis. China in this period enjoyed a splendid era with overwhelmingly developed economy and commerce, and the social order also remained stable, even the borders were open to other countries. With the development of urbanization and the accumulation of wealth, art and literature also thrived. Famous poets like Li Bai and Du Fu were known for the concise and neat language in their works. Their poems touched everyone, ranging from scholars to ordinary people. Even today, their poems are still being read and recited by both children and adults.
The Song dynasty began from 960 and ended in 1279. During the period, China had witnessed huge growth in the economy, making it the most advanced economy in the world. Science and technology, philosophy and mathematics also flourished at that time. In the Song dynasty, China was the first country in the world to issue paper money, use gunpowder and invent movable-type printing. With rapidly increasing population, more and more people moved into the city, in which entertainment venues were very busy. People could enjoy various social life, getting together to appreciate and trade precious artworks. The Song dynasty also enjoyed an advanced government system in the world. All of the government officials were selected and appointed through the competitive examination.
The Ming dynasty ruled China for 276 years, which is depicted as one of the feudal dynasties that are governed orderly and stabilized in the history. In this period, the development of handicraft promoted the market economy and urbanization. An ocean of commodities, including wine and silk, were sold on the market. Meanwhile, numerous exotic products were imported, such as clocks and tobacco. Commercial centers like Beijing, Nanjing, Yangzhou, Suzhou formed in succession. It was also in Ming dynasty that the fleet of ships led by ZhengHe expedited for seven times to the Indian Ocean on a large scale. What’s more, three of the four classical novels are written in the Ming dynasty.