Part I Writing(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay based on the picturebelow. You should focus on the impact of social networking websites on reading.You arereauired to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Part II Listening Comprehension(30 minutes)
Directions : In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A., B., C. and. D., and decide which is the best answer. Thenmark the eorresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
1. A. The restaurant offers some specials each day.
B. The restaurant is known for its food varieties.
C. The dressing makes the mixed salad very inviting.
D. The woman should mix the ingredients thoroughly.
2. A. He took over the firm from Mary.C. He failed to foresee major problems.
B. He is running a successful business.D. He is opening a new consulting firm.
3. A. Someone should be put in charge of office supplies.
B. The man can leave the discs in the office cabinet.
C. The man may find the supplies in the cabinet.
D. The printer in the office has run out of paper.
4.A. He has to use a magnifying glass to see clearly.
B. The woman can use his glasses to read.
C. He has the dictionary the woman wants.
D. The dictionary is not of much help to him.
5.A. Redecorating her office.
B. Majoring in interior design.
C. Seeking professional advice.
D. Adding some office furniture.
6.A. Problems in port management.
B. Improvement of port facilities.
C. Delayed shipment of goods.
D. Shortage of container ships.
7.A. Their boss.
B. A colleague.
C. Their workload.
D. A coffee machine.
8.A. Call the hotel manager for help.
B. Postpone the event until a later date.
C. Hold the banquet at a different place.
D. Get an expert to correct the error.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
9.A. He shares some of the household duties.
B. He often goes back home late for dinner.
C. He cooks dinner for the family occasionally.
D. He dines out from time to time with friends.
10.A. To take him to dinner.
B. To talk about a budget plan.
C. To discuss an urgent problem.
D. To pass on an important message.
11. A. Foreign investors are losing confidence in India's economy.
B. Many multinational enterprises are withdrawing from India.
C. There are wild fluctuations in the international money market.
D. There is a sharp increase in India's balance of payment deficit.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
12. A. They have unrealistic expectations about the other half.
B. They may not be prepared for a lifelong relationship.
C. They form a more realistic picture of life.
D. They try to adapt to their changing roles.
13. A. He is lucky to have visited many exotic places.
B. He is able to forget all the troubles in his life.
C. He is able to meet many interesting people.
D. He is lucky to be able to do what he loves.
14.A. It is stressful.
B. It is full of tim.
C. It is all glamour.
D. It is challenging
15. A. Bothered.
Directions : In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A., B.,C. and D . Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet I with a single line through the centre.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16. A. Maintain the traditional organizational culture.
B. Learn new ways of relating and working together.
C. Follow closely the fast development of technology.
D. Learn to be respectful in a hierarchical organization.
17. A. How the team integrates with what it is supposed to serve.
B. How the team is built to keep improving its performance.
C. What type of personnel the team should be composed of.
D. What qualifications team members should be equipped with.
18. A. A team manager must set very clear and high objectives.
B. Teams must consist of members from different cultures.
C. Team members should be knowledgeable and creative.
D. A team manager should develop a certain set of skills.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.
19. A. It is a platform for sharing ideas on teaching at the University of Illinois.
B. It was mainly used by scientists and technical people to exchange text.
C. It started off as a successful program but was unable to last long.
D. It is a program allowing people to share information on the Web.
20. A. He visited a number of famous computer scientists.
B. He met with an entrepreneur named Jim Clark.
C. He sold a program developed by his friends.
D. He invested in a leading computer business.
21.A. They had confidence in his new ideas.
B. They trusted his computer expertise.
C. They were very keen on new technology.
D. They believed in his business connections.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
22.A. Prestige advertising.
B. Institutional advertising.
C. Word of mouth advertising.
D. Distributing free trial products.
23.A. To sell a particular product.
B. To build up their reputation.
C. To promote a specific service.
D. To attract high-end consumers.
24. A. By using the services of large advertising agencies.
B. By hiring their own professional advertising staff.
C. By buying media space in leading newspapers.
D. By creating their own ads and commericais.
25. A. Decide on what specific means of communication to employ.
B. Conduct a large-scale survey on customer needs.
C. Specify the objectives of the campaign in detail.
D. Pre-test alternative ads or commercials in certain regions.
Directions: In this section, you will hoar a passage three times. When the passage is read for thofirst time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When tho passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in tho blanks with the exact words you have just hoard. Finally, when tho passage is read for the third time, you should chock what you have written.
Extinction is difficult concept to grasp. It is an26concept. It's not at all like the killing of individual lifeforms that can be renewedthrough normal processes of reproduction. Nor is it simply 27numbers. Nor is it damage that can somehow be remedied or for which some substitute can be ound. Nor is it something that simply affects our own generation. Nor is it something that could be remedied by some supernatural power. It is rather an28and final act for which there is no remedy
on earth or in heaven. A species once extinct is gone forever. However many generations29us in coming centuries, none of them will ever see this species that we extinguish. Not only are we bringing about the extinction of life30, we are also making the land and the air and the sea so toxic that the very conditions of life are being destroyed.31basic natural resources, not only are the nonrenewable resources being32in a frenzy ( 疯狂) of processing,consuming, and33, but we are also mining much of our renewable resources, such as the very soil itself on which terrestrial (地球上的) life depends.
The change that is taking place on the earth and in our minds is one of the greatest changes ever to take place in human affairs, perhaps the greatest, since what we are talking about is not simply another historical change or cultural34, but a change of geological and biological as well as psychological order of35 Part III Reading Comprehension(40 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read tho passage through carefully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark tho corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through tho centre. You may not use any of tho words in the bank more than once.
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage. It seems to be a law in the technology industry that leading companies eventually lose their positions, often quickly and brutally.Mobile phone champion Nokia, one of Europe's biggest technology success stories, was no36, losing its market share in just a few years.
In 2007, Nokia accounted for more than 40% of mobile phone sales37But consumers'
preferences were already38toward touch-screen smartphones. With the introduction of Apple's iPhone in the middle of that year, Nokia's market share39rapidly and revenue plunged. By the end of 2013, Nokia had sold its phone business to Microsoft.
What sealed Nokia's fate was a series of decisions made by Stephen Elop in his position as CEO,which he40in October 2010. Each day that Elop spent in charge of Nokia, the company's market value declined by $ 23 million, making him, by the numbers, one of the worst CEOs in history. But Elop was not the only person at41Nokia's board resisted change, making it impossiblefor the company to adapt to rapid shifts in the industry. Most42, Jorma Ollila, who had led Nokia's transition from an industrial company to a technology giant, was too fascinated by the company's43success to recognize the change that was needed to sustain its competitiveness. The company also embarked on a44cost-cutting program, which included the elimination of
which had motivated employees to take risks and make miracles. Good leaders left the company, taking Nokia's sense of vision and directions with them. Not surprisingly, much of Nokia's most valuable design and programming talent left as well.
A)assumed I) previous
B. bias J) relayed
C. desperate K) shifting
D. deterioration L) shrank
E) exception M) subtle
F) fault N) transmitting
G) incidentally O) worldwide
Directions : In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Eachstatement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraphfrom which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once.
Each paragraph is marked with a letter.Answer the questions by .marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2. First-Generation College-Goers: Unprepared and Behind Kids who are the first in their families to brave the world of higher education come on campus with little academic know—how and are much more likely than their peers to drop out before graduation.
[ A] When Nijay Williams entered college last fall as a first—generation student and Jamaican immigrant,he was academically unprepared for the rigors of higher education. Like many first—generation students, he enrolled in a medium-sized state university many of his high school peers were also attending, received a Pell Grant, and took out some small federal loans to cover other costs.
Given the high price of room and board and the closeness of the school to his family, he chose to live at home and worked between 30 and 40 hours a week while taking a full class schedule.
[ B] What Nijay didn't realize about his school—Tennessee State University—was its frighteningly low graduation rate: a mere 29 percent for its first-generation students. At the end of his first year,Nijay lost his Pell Grant of over $ 5,000 after narrowly missing the 2.0 GPA cut-off, making it impossible for him to continue paying for school.
[ C ]Nijay represents a large and growing group of Americans: first—generation college students who enter school unprepared or behind. To make matters worse, these schools are ill-equipped to graduate these students—young adults who face specific challenges and obstacles. They typically carry financial burdens that outweigh those of their peers, are more likely to work while attending school, and often require significant academic remediation (补习).
[ D ] Matt Rubinoff directs I'm First, a nonprofit organization launched last October to reach out to this specific population of students. He hopes to distribute this information and help prospective college-goers fmd the best post-secondary fit. And while Rubinoff believes there are a good number of four—year schools that truly care about these students and set aside significant resources and programs for them, he says that number isn't high enough.
[ E ] "It's not only the selective and elite institutions that provide those opportunities for a small subsetof this population," Rubinoff said, adding that a majority of first-generation undergraduates tend toward options such as online programs, two—year colleges, and commuter state schools.
"Unfortunately, there tends to be a lack of information and support to help students think bigger and broader. "
[ F] Despite this problem, many students are still drawn to these institutions--and two-year schools in particular. As a former high school teacher, I saw students choose familiar, cheaper options year after year. Instead of skipping out on higher education altogether, they chose community colleges or state schools with low bars for admittance.
[ G]"They underestimate themselves when selecting a university,"said Dave Jarrat, a marketing executive for Inside Track, a for—profit organization that specializes in coaching low-income students and supporting colleges in order to help students thrive. "The reality of it is that a lot of low-income kids could be going to elite tufiversities on a full ride scholarship and don't even realize it. "
[ H] "Many students are coming from a situation where no one around them has the experience of successfully completing higher education, so they are coming in questioning themselves and their college worthiness," Jarrat continued. That helps explain why, as I'm First's Rubinoff indicated,the schools to which these students end up resorting can end up being some of the poorest matches for them. The University of Tennessee in Knoxville offers one example of this dilemma. A flagship university in the South, the school graduates just 16 percent of its first—generation students, despite its overall graduation rate of 71 percent. Located only a few hours apart, The University of Tennessee and Tennessee State are worth comparing. Tennessee State's overall graduation rate is a tiny 39 percent, but at least it has a smaller gap between the outcomes for first—generat.ion students and those of their peers.
[I] Still, the University of Tennessee deserves credit for being transparent. Many large institutions keep this kind of data secret—or at least make it incredibly difficult to find The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, for instance, admits only that the graduation rate for its first—generation pupils is "much lower" than the percentage of all students who graduate within four years (81 percent).
[J] It is actually quite difficult to fred reliable statistics on the issue for many schools.Higher education institutions are, under federal law, required to report graduation rates, but these reports typically only include Pell recipient numbers—not necessarily rates specific to fLrst—generation students. Other initiatives fail to break down the data, too. Imagine how intimidating it can be for prospecitive students unfamiliar with the complexities of higher education to navigate this kind of information and then identify which schools are the best fit.
[ K] It was this lack of information that prompted the launch of I'm First in 2013, originally as an ann of its umbrella organization, the Center For Student Opportunity."If we can help to direct students to more of these types of campuses and help students to understand them to be realistic and accessible places, have them apply to these schools at greater frequency and ultimately get in and enroll, we are going to raise the success rate," Rubinoff said, citing a variety of colleges ranging from large state institutions to smaller private schools.
[ L] Chelsea Jones, who now directs student programming at I'm First, was a first—generation college student at Howard. Like other student new to the intimidating higher—education world, she often struggled on her path to college, "There wasn't really a college—bound cnlture at my high school," she said. "I wanted to go to college but I didn't really know the process. " Jones became involved with a college—access program through Princeton University in high school. Now, she attributes much of her understanding of college to that: "But once I got to campus, it was a completely different ball game that no one really prepared me for. "
[ M] She was fortunate, though. Howard, a well—regarded historically black college, had an array of resources for its first—generation students, including matching kids with counselors, comecting first— generation students to one another, and TRIO, a national program that supported 200 students on Howard's campus. Still, Jones represents a small percentage of first-generation students who are able to gain entry into more elite universities, which are often known for robust financial aid packages and remarkably high graduation rates for first—generation students.(Harvard, for example, boasts a six—year graduation rate for underrepresented minority groups of 98 percent. )
[ N]Christian Vazquez, a first—generation Yale graduate, is another exception, his success story setting him far apart from students such as Nijay. "There is a lot of support at Yale, to an extent, after a while, there is too much support," he said, half—joking about the countless resources available at the school. Students are placed in small groups with counselors ( trained seniors on campus) ;they have access to cultural and ethnic affinity (联系) groups, tutoring centers and also have a summer orientation specifically for first—generation students ( the latter being one of the most common programs for students).
[ O]"Our support structure was more like : ' You are going to get through Yale; you are going to do well,' " he said, hinting at mentors (导师), staff, and professors who all provided significant support for students who lacked confidence about "belonging" at such a top institution.
46. Many first—generation college—goers have doubts about their abilities to get a college degree.
47. First—generation college students tend to have much heavier financial burdens than their peers.
48. The graduation rate of first—generation students at Nijay's university was incredibly low.
49. Some top institutions like Yale seem to provide first—generation students with more support than they actually need.
50. On entering college, Nijay Williams had no idea how challenging college education was.
51. Many universities simply refuse to release their exact graduation rates for first-generation students.
52. According to a marketing executive, many students from low-income families don't know they could have a chance of going to an elite university.
53. Some elite universities attach great importance to building up the first—generation students' serf—confidence.
54. I'm First distributes information to help first-generation college-goers find schools that are most suitable for them.
55. Elite universities tend to graduate fn'st-generation students at a higher rate.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A., B., C. andD . You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer
Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
Saying they can no longer ignore the rising prices of health care, some of the most influentialmedical groups in the nation are recommending that doctors weigh the costs, not just the effectiveness of treatments, as they make decisions about patient care.The shift, little noticed outside the medical establishment but already controversial inside it,suggests that doctors are starting to redefine their roles, from being concerned exclusively about individual patients to exerting influence on how healthcare dollars are spent. In practical terms, the new guidelines being developed could result in doctors choosing one drug over another for cost reasons or even deciding that a particular treatment—at the end of life, for example—is too expensive. In the extreme, some critics have said that making treatment decisionsbased on cost is a form of rationing. Traditionally, guidelines have heavily influenced the practice of medicine, and the latest ones areexpected to make doctors more conscious of the economic consequences of their decisions, even though there's no obligation to follow them. Medical society guidelines are also used by insurancecomoanies to help determine reimbursement (报销) policies. Some doctors see a potential conflict in trying to be both providers of patient care and fmancial
Overseers. "There should be forces in society who should be concerned about the budget, but they shouldn't be functioning simultaneously as doctors," said Dr. Martin Samuels at a Boston hospital. He said doctors risked losing the trust of patients if they told patients, "I'm not going to do what I think is best for you because I think it's bad for the healthcare budget in Massachusetts. " Doctors can face some grim trade—offs. Studies have shown, for example, that two drugs are about
equally effective in treating macular degeneration, and eye disease. But one costs $ 50 a dose and the other close to $ 2,000. Medicare could save hundreds of millions of dollars a year if everyone used the cheaper drug, Avastin, instead of the costlier one, Lucentis. But the Food and Drug Administration has not approved Avastin for use in the eye. and using it rather than the alternative, Lucentis, might carry an additional, although slight, safety risk. Should doctors consider Medicare's budget in deciding what to use?"I think ethically (在道德层面上) we are just worried about the patient in front of us and not trying to save money for the insurance industry or society as a whole," said Dr. Donald Jensen. Still, some analysts say that there's a role for doctors to play in cost analysis because not many others are doing so. "In some ways," said Dr. Daniel Sulmasy, "it represents a failure of wider society
to take up the issue. "
56. What do some most influential medical groups recommend doctors do?
A. Reflect on the responsibilities they are supposed to take.
B. Pay more attention to the effectiveness of their treatments.
C. Take costs into account when making treatment decisions.
D. Readjust their practice in view of the cuts in health care.
57. What were doctors mainly concerned about in the past?
A. Specific medicines to be used.
B. Effects of medical treatment.
C. Professional advancement.
D. Patients' trust.
58. What may the new guidelines being developed lead to?
A. The redefining of doctors' roles.
B. Overuse of less effective medicines.
C. Conflicts between doctors and patients.
D. The prolonging of patients' suffering.
59. What risk do doctors see in their dual role as patient care providers and financial overseers?
A. They may be involved in a conflict of interest.
B. They may be forced to divide their attention.
C. They may have to use less effective drugs.
D. They may lose the respect of patients.
60. What do some experts say about doctors' involvement in medical cost analysis?
A. It may add to doctors' already heavy workloads.
B. It will help to save money for society as a whole.
C. It results from society's failure to tackle the problem.
D. It raises doctors' awareness of their social responsibilities.
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
Economic inequality is the "defining challenge of our time," President Barack Obama declared in a speech last month to the Center for American Progress. Inequality is dangerous, he argued, not merely because it doesn't look good to have a large gap between the rich and the poor, but because inequality itself destroys upward mobility, making it harder for the poor to escape from poverty. "Increased inequality and decreasing mobility pose a fundamental threat to the American Dream," he said. Obama is only the most prominent public figure to declare inequality Public Enemy No. 1 and the greatest threat to reducing poverty in America. A number of prominent economists have also argued that it's harder for the poor to climb the economic ladder today because the rungs (横档 ) in that ladder have grown farther apart.
For all the new attention devoted to the 1 percent, a new damset from the Equality of Opportunity Project at Harvard and Berkeley suggests that, if we care about upward mobility overall, we're vastly exaggerating the dangers of the rich—poor gap. Inequality itself is not a particularly strong predictor of economic mobility, as sociologist Scott Winship noted in a recent article based on his analysis of this data. So what factors, at the community level, do predict if poor children will move up the economic ladder as adtdts? what explains, for instance, why the Salt Lake City metro area is one of the 100 largest metropolitan areas most likely to lift the fortunes of the poor and the Atlanta metro area is one of the least likely?
Harvard economist Raj Cherty has pointed to economic and racial segregation, community density,the size of a community's middle class, the quality of schools, commtmity religiosity, and family structure, which he calls the "single strongest correlate of upward mobility. " Chetty finds that communities like Salt Lake City, with high levels of two-parent families and religiosity, are much more likely to see poor children get ahead than communities like Atlanta, with high levels of racial and economic segregation. Chetty has not yet issued a comprehensive analysis of the relative predictive power of each of these factors. Based on my analyses of the data. of the factors that Chetty has highlighted, the following three seem to be most predictive of upward mobility in a given community:
1. Per-capita (人均) income growth
2. Prevalence of single mothers ( where correlation is strong, but negative)
3. Per-capita local government spending In other words, communities with high levels of per-capita income growth, high percentages of two-parent families, and high local government spending-which may stand for good schools-are the most likely to help poor children relive Horatio Alger's rags-to-riches story.
61. How does Obama view economic inequality?
A. It is the biggest obstacle to social mobility.
B. It is the greatest threat to social stability.
C. It is the No. 1 enemy of income growth.
D. It is the most malicious social evil of our time.
62. What do we learn about the inequality gap from Scott Winship's data analysis?
A. It is fast widening across most parts of America.
B. It is not a reliable indicator of economic mobility.
C. It is not correctly interpreted.
D. It is overwhelmingly ignored.
63. Compared with Atlanta, metropolitan Salt Lake City is said to
A. have placed religious beliefs above party politics
B. have bridged the gap between the rich and the poor
C. offer poor children more chances to climb the social ladder
D. suffer from higher levels of racial and economic segregation
64. What is strongly correlated with social mobility according to economist Raj Cherty?
A. Family structure.
B. Racial equality.
C. School education.
D. Community density.
65. What does the author seem to suggest?
A. It is important to increase the size of the middle class.
B. It is highly important to expand the metropolitan areas.
C. It is most imperative to focus our efforts on the elimination of income inequality.
D. It is better to start from the community to help poor children move up the social ladder.
Part IVTranslation(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You shou write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
1．W：Wow。what a variety of salads you’ve got on your menu!Could you recommend something special?
M：Well，I think you can try this mixed salad．We make the dressing with fresh berries．
Q：What does the man mean?
2．W：1 was talking to Mary the other day and she mentioned that your new consulting firm is doing really well．
M：Yes．Business picked up much faster than we anticipated．We now have over 200 clients．
Q：What do we learn about the man from the conversation?
3．M：Do you know where we keep flash discs and printing paper?
W：They should be in the cabinet if there are any．That’s where we keep all of Our office supplies．
Q：What does the woman mean?
4．W：The print in this dictionary is so small．I call’t read the explanation at all．
M：Let me get my magnifying glass．I know I just can't do without it．
Q：What does the man mean?
5．W：I'm considering having my office redecorated．The furniture is old and the paint is chipping
M：I’ll give you my sister in law’s number．She just graduated from an interior design academy and will give a free estimate．
Q：What is the woman considering?
6．W：We have afull load of goods that needs to be delivered．But we can't get a container ship anywhere．
M：That’s always been a problem in this port．The facilities here are never able to meet our needs．
Q：What are the speakers talking about?
7．W：Why di血’t Rod get aPay raise?”
M：The boSS just isn’t convinced that his work attitude warranted it．She said she saw him by the coffeemachine more often than at his desk．
Q：What are the speakers talking about?
8．W：The hotel called，saying that because of a scheduling error，they won’t be able to cater for Our banquet
M：I know an In dian restaurant on the High Street that offers a special dinner for groups．The food is excellent and the room is large enough to accommodate US．
Q：What does the man suggest they do?
M: Hello, Jane.
W: Hello, Paul.
M: Please come in. (9) I'm just gettingready to go home. Susan is expecting me for dinner. I want to be on time for a change.
W: (10) Look, I'm terribly sorry to drop in at this time on Friday, Paul, but it is rather important.
M: That's OK. What's the problem?
W. Well, Paul, I won't keep you long. You see there is a problem with the exchange rates. The Indian Rupee has taken a fall on the foreign exchange market. ( 11 ) You see there has been a sharp increase in Indian's balance of payment deficit.
M: I see. That's serious, isn't it'?
W: Well, as you know, there have been reports of unrest India, and the prospects for the Rupee look pretty gloomy.
M: And that's going to affect us, as if we didn't have enough problems on our hands.
W: So I thought it would be wise to take out forward exchange cover to protect our position on the outstanding contracts.
hi: Just a minute. Forward exchange cover, now what does that mean exactly?
W: Well, it means that Jo Motors enters into a commitment to sell Indian Rupees at the present rate.
M: I see. And how will that benefit us?
W: Well, Jio Motors won't lose out if the Indian Rupee falls further.
M: What will it cost, Jane?
W: A small percentage, about 1% and that can be built into the price of the bike.
M: Well, I don't suppose there is much choice. All right, Jane, let's put it into action.
未听先知：预览三道题各选项，可以发现，每个题目的侧重点完全不同，第9题考查男士的日常行为，第l0题为不定式短语，应该是考查将要发生的行为动作或是某种目的，第11题出现了Foreign investors，enterprises等词，可推测与商务行为有关，但由第l0题中的urgent problem和important message还是能够推测，对话的主题 应该涉及某种比较严蘑的问题。
9．What do we learn about the man’s daily life?
B.。详解：四个选项均以He开头，且均使用了一般现在时，可以推测本题考查内容与男士的日常生活有关。由各选项A.“他分担一些家务职责”、B.“他经常回家很晚，赶不上吃晚饭”、C.“他偶尔会为家人做饭”和D.“他有时会与朋友外出就餐”可以看出，本题的重点是男士通常是怎样解决晚餐的。其中，A.与其他三个选项的内容有较大差异，可以提前排除。对话中男士与女士见面时，男士告诉女士他正要回家，Susan正在家里等他回去吃晚餐，他不能总像平日里那样老是赶不上吃晚餐。for a change表达的意思是“改变一下”，既然男士今天要按时回家与家人一起共进晚餐，也就可以推测出他大多数时候是不按时回家吃晚餐的。
10．Why did the woman come to see the man?
1 1．What makes the woman worry about the Indian Rupee?
W: Charles, among other things, you are regarded as one of the America's great masters of the Blues, a musical idiom that's essentially about loss, particularly the loss of romantic love. Why does love die?
M: ( 12 ) People often get into love affairs because they have unrealistic expectations about somebody. Then when the person doesn't turn out to be who they thought he or she was, they start thinking "maybe I can change him or her". That kind of thinking is a mistake. Because when the dust settles, people are going to
be pretty much what they are. It's a rare thing for anybody to be able to change who they really are. And this creates a lot of problems.
W: At 62, you continue to spend a large percentage of your life touring. What appeals to you about life on the road?
M: (13) Music. I don't especially love life on the road, but I figure if you are lucky enough to be able to do what you truly love doing, you've got the ultimate in life.
W: What's the most widely-held misconception about the life of a famous musician?
M: (14) People think it's all glamour. Actually we have the same trouble as they do. Playing music doesn't mean life treats you any better.
W: How do you feel about being recognized everywhere you go?
M: You'd think I'd be used to it by now. (15) But I still find it fascinating. You go to a little town in Japan,where nobody speaks English, yet they know you on site and know all of your music. I'm still amazed be the love people express for me and by music.
未听先知：预览四道题各选项，第l4、l5题的选项均以形容词为主，无法通过这些形容词判断出对话主题，但由第l2题中的the other half，relationship，picture of life等词可以判断，对话涉及到了恋爱关系以及人们对爱情的理解，而通过第l3题的各选项也可以确定对话与某位男士的精彩生活有关。
12．What does the mail say about most people when they get into love affairs?
13．What does the mail say about himself as a singer OH the road most of his life?
14．What do most people think of the life of a famous musician?
15．How does the mall feel whenever he is recognized by his fans?
Changing technology and markets have stimulated the team approach to management. Inflation, resource scarcity, reduced personnel levels and budget cuts have all underscore the need for better coordination in organizations. Team management provides for this coordination. Team management calls for new skills if personnel potential is to be fully realized. (16) Although a team may be composed of knowledg
they must learn new ways of relating and workin together to solve cross-functional problems. When teams consist of experienced employees from hierarchical organizations who have been conditioned to traditional organizational culture, cooperation may not occur naturally. It may need to be created. (17) Furthermore, the issue is not just how the team can function more effectively, but how it integrates with the overall organization or society that it supposedly serves. A group of individuals is not automatically a team. Therefore, team building may be necessary in order to improve the group's performance.Casey, an expert in this field, suggests that the cooperation process within teams must be organized, promoted and managed. He believes that team corporation results when members go beyond their individual capabilities, beyond what each is used to being and doing. Together, the team may then produce something new, tmique and superior to that of any one member. For this to happen, he suggests the multi-cultural managers exhibit understanding of their own and other's cultural influences and limitations. They should also cultivate such skills as toleration of ambiguity,persistence and patience, as well as assertedness. (18) If a team manager xemplifies such qualities, then the team, as a whole, would be better able to realize their potential and achieve their objectives.
未听先知：预览三道题各选项，由第16题中的organizational culture，第l7题和l8题中多次出现的team一词，以及qualifications，team manager，cultures等词可以推测，短文可能与企业或商业环境中的团队合作、团队建设有关。
16．What should team members do to fully realize their potential?’
17．What needs to be considered for effective team management?
18．What conclusion Can we draw from what Casey says?
In early 1994, when Mark Andreessen was just 23 years old, he arrived in Silicon Valley with an idea that would change the world. (19) As a student at the University of Illinois, he and his friends had developed a program called Mosaic, which allowed people to share information on the world wide web. Before Mosaic, the web had been used mainly by scientists and other technical people, who were happy just to send and receive text. But with Mosaic, Andreessen and his friends had developed a program which could send images over the web as well. Mosaic was an overnight success. It was put on the university's network at the beginning of 1993.
And by the end of the year, it had over a million users. Soon after, Andreessen went to seek his fortune in Silicon Valley. (20) Once he got there, he started to have meetings with a man called Jim Clark, who was one of the Valley's most famous entrepreneurs. In 1994, nobody was making any real money from the Internet
which was still very slow and hard to use. But Andreessen had seen an opportunity that would make him and Clark rich within two years. He suggested they should create a new computer program that would do the same job as Mosaic but would be much easier to use. Clark listened carefully to Pmdreessen, whose ideas and enthusiasm impressed him greatly. ( 21 ) Eventually, Clark agreed to invest three million dollars of his own money in the project, and to raise an extra fifteen million from venture capitalists who were always keen to listen to Clark's new ideas.
未听先知：预览三道题各选项，由第20题中的He可以推断，文章与某位男士的个人经历有关，该题选项中出现了computer scientists，computer business等词，再结合第19题中的program，第21题中的technology，computer expertise可以推测，文章可能围绕计算机行业中的某位男士展开。
19．Wath do we learn about Mosaic?
20．What did Andreessen do upon arriving in Silicon Valley?
B.。详解：选项均以He开头，A.“他拜访了一批著名的计算机科学家”、B.“他与一位名为Jim Clark的企业家碰了面”、C.“他卖掉了朋友们开发的软件”和D.“他投资了一项领先的计算机生意”都是对He行为动作的描述，听录音时应注意捕捉与He的行为动作相关的信息。短文中说Andreessen一到硅谷，首先就与硅谷的著名企业家Jim Clark进行了会面。
21．Why were venture capitalists willing to join in Clark’s investment?
Advertising informs consumers about the existence and benefits of products and sewices and attempts to persuade them to buy them. (22) The best form of advertising is probably word-of-mouth advertising which occurs when people tell their friends about the benefits of products or services that they have purchased. Yet virtually no providers of goods or services rely on this alone, but use paid advertising instead. ( 23 ) Indeed Many rganizations also use institutional or prestige advertising which is designed to build up their reputation rather than to sell particular products. (24) Althou anies could easily set up their own advertisingdepartments, write their own advertisements and buy media space themselves, they tend to use the services of advertising_agencies. These are likely to have more resources and more knowledge about all aspects of advertising and advertising media than single company. It is also easier for a dissatisfied company to give its account to another agency than it would be to fire its own advertising staff. The client company generally gives the advertising agency an agreed budget, a statement of the objectives of the advertising campaign known as a brief and an overall advertising strategy concerning the message to be communicated to the target customers.
The agency creates advertisements and develops a media plan, specifying which media will be used and in which proportions.(25) Agencies often produce alternative ads or commercials that are pretested in newspapers, television stations, etc., in different parts of the country before a final choice is made prior to a national camoalgn.
22．What is probably the best form of advertising according to the speaker?
23．What does the speaker say is purpose of many organizations’using prestige advertising?
24．How do large companies generally handle their advertising?
25．What would advertising agencies often do before a national campaign?
29．succeed。详解：空格位于状语从句中的谓语部分，由于前面的主语为复数，主句时态为一般将来时，因此，空格内填人动词的一般现在时。由空格后的in coming centuries可知，此处要表达的意思是：不管在我们之后还有多少代人会继续生存，都不会再看到那些已经灭绝的物种了。succeed意为“接替，继承”。
30．on a vast scale。详解：空格所在句不缺少句子主要成分，因此，应填入副词或副词短语，充当句子的状语。上一段提到了灭绝，本段提到了人类对自然资源的浪费和破坏，这些都是大范围的行为。on a vast scale意为“大面积的，大范围的”。
31．As regards。详解：空格与其后的名词短语basic natural resources不是句子主干的一部分，因此需要填人介词，构成介词短语。上一句说到了人类对天空、大地和空气的污染，本句则提到了自然资源。As regards意为“至于，关于”。注意空格位于句首，As首字母需要大写。
32．used up。详解：空格位于句子的谓语部分，与are…being连在一起构成现在进行时的被动语态，表示“正在被……”，因此应该填入动词或动词词组。由but we are also rtfinin9可知，此处要表达的意思是：我们正在以疯狂的速度和手段将自然界中不可再生的资源消耗殆尽。used up意为“用光，消耗光”。注意使用动词的过去分词形式。
40．A.assumed。详解:该空格位于以which引导的定语从句中，且处于定语从句的谓语动词位置，又因出现了明确的时间状语in October 2010，因此应填入动词过去式，本句的含义为“他于2010年l0月开始担任诺基亚公司首席执行官一职”。故答案为A.assumed“承担(权力，责任)”。备选项中relayed与上下文语义不符，故应排除。
46. Many first-generation college goers have doubts about their abilities togetacollege degree.
定位；由题干关键词havedoubts about their abilities定位到原文画线处。
47. First-generation college students tend to have much heavier financial burdens than their peers.
定位：由题干关键词heavier financial burdens定位到原文画线处。
48. The graduation rate of first-generation studentsatNijay'suniversitywas incredibly low.
49. Some top institutions like Yale seem to provide first-generation studentswithmoresupport than they actually need.
50. On entering college, Nijay Wiflliams hadnoideahowchallenging college education was.
51. Many universities simply refuse to release their exact graduation rates for first generation students.
定位：由题干关键词graduation rates及first—generation students定位到原文画线处。
52. According to a marketing executive,many students from low-income families don't know they could have a chance of going to an elite university.
定位：由题干关键词marketing executive，students from low—income families和all eliteuniversity定位到原文画线处。
53. Some elite universities attach great importance to building up the first-generation students' self- confidence.
定位：由题干关键词Some elite universities和confidence定位到原文画线处。
54. I'm First distributes information to helpfirst-generationcollege-goersfind
schools that are most suitable for them.
定位：由题于关键词I'm First，distributes information和couege—goers定位到原文画线处。
55. Eliteuniversitiestendtograduate first-generationstudents at a higher rate.
定位：由题干关键词Eliteuniversities和at a higher rate定位到原文画线处。
56．C.。定位：由题干关键词influential medical groups定位到文章首段的后半部分．．．．that doctors weigh the costs，not just the effectiveness of treatments，as they make decisions about patient care．
57．B。定位：由题干关键词doctors，concerned和in the past定位到文章第二段后半部分．Ifrom beingconcerned exclusively about individual patients to exerting influence on how healthcare dollars are spent．
58．A。定位：根据题于关键词new guidelines和lead to定位到文章第三段首句．．．．the new guidelinesbeing developed could result in doctors choosing one drug over another for cost reasons or evendeciding that a particular treatment--at the end of life．for example--is too expensive．
详解：事实细节题。定位句指出，医生会基于价格考虑，从而决定药品的使用和医疗方案，这与上一段首句提到的redefine their roles相呼应，医生从仅仅只考虑疗效到在决定中引入费用因素，其角色确实发生了转变，故答案为A。
59．D。定位：由题于关键词risk和providers，financial overseers定位到文章第五段：Some doctors see a potential conflict in trying to be both providers of patient care and fmancial overseers．和第六段第二句：He said doctors risked losing the trust of patients…
60．C。定位：由题干关键词experts和medical cost analysis定位到文章最后一段：Still，some analysts say that there’s a role for doctors to play in cost analysis because not many others are doing So．“In some ways．”said Dr．Daniel Sulmasy．it represents a failure of wider society to take up the issue．’’
61．A。定位：由题干关键词0bama和economic inequality定位到文章第一段第二句：Inequality isdangerous，he argued，not merely because it doesn’t look good to have a large gap between the richand the poor，but because inequality itseff destroys upward mobility，malting it harder for the poor toescape from poverty．
62．B.。定位：由题干关键词the inequality gap和Scott Winship’s data analysis定位到文章第三段最后一句：Inequality itself is not a particularly strong predictor of economic mobility，as sociologist Scott W111ship noted in a recent article based on his analysis of this data．
63．C定位：根据题干中的地名Atlanta和Salt Lake City定位到文章第五段最后一句：Chetty finds that communities like Salt Lake City，with high levels of two—parent families and religiosity，are much more likely to see poor children get ahead than communities like Atlanta，with high levels of racial and economic segregation．
64．A.。定位：由题干关键词strongly correlated和Rai Chetty定位到文章第五段首句：Harvard economist Raj Cherty has pointed to economic and racial segregation，community density，the size of a community’s middle class，the quality of schools，community religiosity，and family structure，which he calls the“single strongest correlate of upward mobility．”
65．D.。定位：根据题文同序原则，定位至文章最后一段：In other words，communities with high levels of per-capita income growth，high percentages of two-parent families，and high local government spending-which may stand for good schools-are the most likely to help poor children relive Horatio Alger’s rags to riches story．
In China, parents always try every means to help their children, and even make important decisions for them. They never care what the children really want because they believe that it is good for the children. As a result, children's growth and education tend to surrender to the wills of their parents.
If parents decide to sign up for their children to take an extra class to increase their chances of being admitted to a key school, they will stick to their decision, even if their children are not interested in it.
In the United States, however, parents are likely to respect their children's opinions, and to pay more attention to their opinions in making decisions.
It may be worthy of praise for the Chinese parents to attach great importance to education. However, they should learn how to balance the relationsop between parents and the children from American parents when it comes to education.
1．第一段第一句比较长，一种翻泽方法是将其断为两个句子翻译，以避免句子繁琐。第一个分句的翻译难点在于“竭力”，比较简单的翻译方法是如同参考译文那样，译为try every means to do sth．；另外，还可以使用较难的表达：endeavour to do sth．。第二个分句相对简单，翻译为一个原因状语从句即可。
2．第二句的翻译难点在于“屈从于”的翻译，英语中较为常见的翻译是yield t0和surrender to。另外就是“往往”的翻译，参考译文中的tend to表达一种趋势，比较常见的more often than not也是一种不错的表达。
3．第二段为独句段，句子看起来复杂，仔细分析句子结构可知，这句话其实包含了一个条件状语从句，一个目的状语从句和一个让步状语从句，主句是“他们会坚持自己的决定”。其次是几个短语的翻译，“报名参加”用register或sign up for均可；“增加做某事的机会”常译为increase the chance of doing sth．；“坚持自己的决定”用hold firmly表达比较形象，也可译为stick to。
4．第三段中，“尊重孩子的意见”和“在决策时更注重他们的意见”是并列顺承关系，用and连接。“更注重”可按照参考译文那样译为pay more attention to，也可以译为attach more importance to。
5．第四段第一句有两种翻译方法，第一种是使用It+be+adj．+for sb．to do sth．结构，it作形式主语，to do sth．充当真正的主语。第二种翻译方法是使用动名词的复合结构作主语，即Chinese parents’attaching great importance to education may be praiseworthy。
6．第四段最后一句是一个复合句，句子主干是“他们应向美国父母学习”，“涉及教育时如何平衡父母与子女间的关系”是“学习”的宾语，该宾语结构应由how引出。需要注意的是“涉及”的翻译，when it comes to…是最为常见的表达方式。“平衡”在此处是一个动词，翻译时可像参考译文那样使用balance的动词用法，也可以使用其名词用法，即keepa balance between…and…。