Part I Writing(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay based on the picturebelow.You should focus on the harm caused by misleading information online.You arerequired to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Part Ⅱ Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations.At the endof each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said.Both theconversation and the questions will be spoken only once.After each question there will bea pause.During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C.and D),and decide which is the best answer.Then mark the corresponding letter on AnswerSheet I with a single line through the centre.
1.A.She has completely recovered.
B.She went into shock after an operation.
C.She is still in a critical condition.
D.She is getting much better.
2.A.Ordering a breakfast.
B.Booking a hotel room.
C.Buying a train ticket.
D.Fixing a compartment.
3.A.Most borrowers never returned the books to her.
B.The man is the only one who brought her book back.
C.She never expected anyone to return the books to her.
D.Most of the books she lent out came back without jackets.
4.A.She left her work early to get some bargains last Saturday.
B.She attended the supermarket's grand opening ceremony.
C.She drove a full hour before finding a parking space.
D.She failed to get into the supermarket last Saturday.
5.A.He is bothered by the pain in his neck.
B.He cannot do his report without a computer.
C.He cannot afford to have a coffee break.
D.He feels sorry to have missed the report.
6.A.Only top art students can show their works in the gallery.
B.The gallery space is big enough for the man's paintings.
C.The woman would like to help with the exhibition layout.
D.The man is uncertain how his art works will be received.
7.A.The woman needs a temporary replacement for her assistant.
B.The man works in the same department as the woman does.
C.The woman will have to stay in hospital for a few days.
D.The man is capable of dealing with difficult people.
8.A.It was better than the previous one.
B.It distorted the mayor's speech.
C.It exaggerated the city's economic problems.
D.It reflected the opinions of most economists.
Questions 9 to 12 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
9.A.To inform him of a problem they face.
B.To request him to purchase control desks.
C.To discuss the content of a project report.
D.To ask him to flX the dictating machine.
10.A.They quote the best price in the market.
B.They manufacture and sell office furniture.
C.They cannot deliver the steel sheets on time.
D.They cannot produce the steel sheets needed.
11.A.By marking down the trait price.
B.By accepting the penalty clauses.
C.By allowing more time for delivery.
D.By promising better after-sales service.
12.A.Give the customer a ten percent discount.
B.Claim compensation from the steel suppliers.
C.Ask the Buying Department to change suppliers.
D.Cancel the contract with the customer.
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
14.A.Improve computer programming.
B.Explain certain natural phenomena.
C.Predict global population growth.
D.Promote national financial health.
15.A.Their different educational backgrounds.
B.Changing attitudes toward nature.
C.Chaos theory and its applications.
D.The current global economic crisis.
Directions : In this section, you will hear 3 short passages.At the end of each passage, you will hearsome questions.Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once.After youhear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B),C.and D ).Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single linethrough the centre.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16.A.They lay great emphasis on hard work.
B.They name 150 star engineers each year.
C.They require high academic degrees.
D.They have people with a very high IQ.
17.A.Long years of job training.
B.High emotional intelligence.
C.Distinctive academic qualifications.
D.Devotion to the advance of science.
18.A.Good interpersonal relationships.
B.Rich working experience.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
B.A fairy tale.
C.A history textbook.
20.A.He was a sports fan.
B.He loved adventures.
C.He disliked school.
D.He liked hair-raising stories.
21.A.Encourage people to undertake adventures.
B.Publicize his colorful and unique life stories.
C.Raise people's environmental awareness.
D.Attract people to America's national parks.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
22.A.The first infected victim.
B.A coastal village in Africa.
C.The doctor who lust identified it.
D.A river running through the Congo.
23.A.They exhibit similar symptoms.
B.They can be treated with the same drug.
C.They have almost the same mortality rate.
D.They have both disappeared for good.
24.A.By inhaling air polluted with the virus.
B.By contacting contaminated body fluids.
C.By drinking water from the Congo River.
D.By eating food grown in Sudan and Zalre.
25.A.More strains will evolve from the Ebola virus.
B.Scientists will eventually fred cures for Ebola.
C.Another Ebola epidemic may erupt sooner or later.
D.Once infected, one will become immune to Ebola.Section C
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times.When the passage is read for the irst time, you should listen carefully for its general idea.When the passage is read forthe second time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have justheard.Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what youhave written.
The ideal companion machine would not only look, feel, and sound friendly but would also beprogrammed to behave in an agreeable manner.Those 26 that make interaction with other peopleenjoyable would be simulated as closely as possible, and the machine would 27 charming,stimulating, and easygoing.Its informal conversational style would make interaction comfortable, andyet the machine would remain slightly 28 and therefore interesting.In its first encounter it might besomewhat hesitant and unassuming, but as it came to know the user it would progress to a more 29 and intimate style.The machine would not be a passive 30 but would add its ownsuggestions, information, and opinions; it would sometimes 31 developing or changing the topicand would have a personality of its own.
The machine would convey presence: We have all seen how a computer's use of personal namesoften 32 people and leads them to treat the machine as if it were almost human.Such features areeasily written into the software.By introducing 33 forcefulness and humor, the machine could bepresented as a vivid and unique character.
Friendships are not made in a day, and the computer would be more acceptable as a friend if it 34 the gradual changes that occur when one person is getting to know another.At an 35 timeit might also express the kind of affection that stimulates attachment and intimacy.
Part Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one wordfor each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage.Read thepassage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank isidentified by a letter.Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on AnswerSheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any of the words in thebank more than once.
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
As it is, sleep is so undervalued that getting by on fewer hours has become a badge of honor.Plus, we live in a culture that 36 to the late-nighter, from 24-hour grocery stores to onlineshopping sites that never close.It's no surprise, then, that more than half of American adults don't getthe 7 to 9 hours of shut-eye every night as 37 by sleep experts.
Whether or not we can catch up on sleep--on the weekend, say--is a hotly 38 topic amongsleep researchers.The latest evidence suggests that while it isn't 39 , it might help.When Liu, theUCLA sleep researcher and professor of medicine, brought 40 sleep-restricted people into the labfor a weekend of sleep during which they logged about 10 hours per night, they showed 41 in theability of insulin (胰岛素) to process blood sugar.That suggests that catch-up sleep may undo some
but not all of the damage that sleep 42 causes, which is encouraging, given how many adults don'tget the hours they need each night.Still, Liu isn't 43 to endorse the habit of sleeping less andmaking up for it later.
Sleeping pills, while helpful for some, are not 44 an effective remedy either."A sleeping pillwill 45 one area of the brain, but there's never going to be a perfect sleeping pill, because youcouldn't really replicate (复制 ) the different chemicals moving in and out of different parts of the brainto go through the different stages of sleep," says Dr.Nancy Collop, director of the Emory UniversitySleep Center.
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it.Eachstatement contains information given in one of the paragraphs.Identify the paragraphfrom which the information is derived.You may choose a paragraph more than once.Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking thecorresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
Climate change may be real, but it's still not easy being green
How do we convince our inner caveman to be greener? We ask some outstanding social scientists.
[A] The road to climate hell is paved with our good intentions.Politicians may tackle polluters whilescientists do battle with carbon emissions.But the most pervasive problem is less obvious: ourown behaviour.We get distracted before we can turn down the heating.We break our promise notto fly after hearing about a neighbour's trip to India.Ultimately, we can't be bothered to changeour attitude.Fortunately for the planet, social science and behavioural economics may be able todo that for us.
[B] Despite mournful polar beats and charts showing carbon emissions soaring, most people find ithard to believe that global warming will affect them personally.Recent polls by the Pew ResearchCentre in Washington, DC, found that 75-80 per cent of participants regarded climate change as animportant issue.But respondents ranked it last on a list of priorities.
[C] This inconsistency largely stems from a feeling of powerlessness."When we can't actually removethe source of our fear, we tend to adapt psychologically by adopting a range of defencemechanisms," says Tom Crompton, change strategist for the environmental organisation WorldWide Fund for Nature.
[ D] Part of the fault lies with our inner caveman.Evolution has programmed humans to pay mostattention to issues that will have an immediate impact."We worry most about now because if wedon't survive for the next minute, we're not going to be around in ten years' time," says ProfessorElke Weber of the Centre for Research on Environmental Decisions at Columbia University in NewYork.If the Thames were lapping around Big Ben, Londoners would face up to the problem ofemissions pretty quickly.But in practice, our brain discounts the risks--and benefits--associatedwith issues that lie some way ahead.
[E] Matthew Rushworth, of the Department of Experimental Psychology at the University of Oxford,sees this in his lab every day."One of the ways in which all agents seem to make decisions is thatthey assign a lower weighting to outcomes that are going to be further away in the future," hesays."This is a very sensible way for an animal to make decisions in the wild and would have been very helpful for humans for thousands of years."
[F] Not any longer.By the time we wake up to the threat posed by climate change, it could well betoo late.And ff we're not going to make rational decisions about the future, others may have tohelp us to do so.
[G] Few political libraries are without a copy of Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealthand Happiness, by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein.They argue that governments shouldpersuade us into making better decisions--such as saving more in our pension plans--by changingthe default options.Professor Weber believes that environmental policy can make use of similartactics.If, for example, building codes included green construction guidelines, most developerswould be too lazy to challenge them.
[H] Defaults are certainly part of the solution.But social scientists are most concerned about craftingmessages that exploit our group mentality (,——, —— )."We need to understand what motivatespeople, what it is that allows them to make change," says Professor Neil Adger, of the TyndallCentre for Climate Change Research in Norwich."It is actually about what their peers think ofthem, what their social norms are, what is seen as desirable in society." In other words, ourinner caveman is continually looking over his shoulder to see what the rest of the tribe are up to.[ I ] The passive attitude we have to climate change as individuals can be altered by counting us in--and measuring us against--our peer group."Social norms are primitive and elemental," says Dr.Robert Cialdini, author of Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion."Birds flock together, fishschool together, cattle herd together...just perceiving norms is enough to cause people to adjusttheir behaviour in the direction of the crowd."
[J] These norms can take us beyond good intentions.Cialdini conducted a study in San Diego inwhich coat hangers bearing messages about saving energy were hung on people's doors.Some ofthe messages mentioned the environment, some financial savings, others social responsibility.Butit was the ones that mentioned the actions of neighbours that drove down power use.
[K] Other studies show that simply providing the facility for people to compare their energy use withthe local average is enough to cause them to modify their behaviour.The Conservatives plan toadopt this strategy by making utility companies print the average local electricity and gas usage onpeople's bills.
[L] Social science can also teach politicians how to avoid our collective capacity for serf-destructivebehaviour.Environmental campaigns that tell us how many people drive SUVs unwittingly (不经意的) imply that this behaviour is widespread and thus permissible.Cialdini recommends somecareful framing of the message."Instead of normalising the undesirable behaviour, the messageneeds to marginalise it, for example, by stating that if even one person buys yet another SUV, itreduces our ability to be energy-independent."
[M] Tapping into how we already see ourselves is crucial.The most successful environmental strategywill marry the green message to our own sense of identity.Take your average trade unionmember, chances are they will be politically motivated and be used to collective action--muchlike Erica Gregory.A retired member of the Public and Commercial Services Union, she is settingup one of 1,i00 action groups with the support of Climate Solidarity, a two-year environmentalcampaign aimed at trade unionists.
[N] Erica is proof that a great-grandmother can help to lead the revolution if you get the psychologyright--in this case, by matching her enthusiasm for the environment with a fondness for organisinggroups."I think it's a terrific idea," she says of the campaign."The union backing it makesmembers think there must be something in it." She is expecting up to 20 people at the firstmeeting she has called, at her local pub in the Cornish village of Polperro.
[O] Nick Perks, project director for Climate Solidarity, believes this sort of activity is where the futureof environmental action lies. "Using existing civil society structures or networks is a more effective way of creating change.., and obviously trade unions are one of the biggest civil societynetworks in the UK," he says. The " Love Food, Hate Waste" campaign entered into acollaboration last year with another such network--the Women's Institute.Londoner Rachel Taylor
joined the campaign with the aim of making new friends.A year on, the meetings have madelasting changes to what she throws away in her kitchen."It's always more of an incentive if you'redoing it with other people," she says."It motivates you more if you know that you've got toprovide feedback to a group."
[P]The power of such simple psychology in fighting climate change is attracting attention across thepolitical establishment.In the US, the House of Representatives Science Committee has approveda bill allocating $10 million a year to studying energy-related behaviour.In the UK, new studiesare in development and social scientists are regularly spotted in British government offices.Withthe help of psychologists, there is fresh hope that we might go green after all.
46.When people find they are powerless to change a situation, they tend to live with it.
47.To be effective, environmental messages should be carefully framed.
48.It is the government's responsibility to persuade people into making environment-friendly decisions.
49.Politicians are beginning to realise the importance of enlisting psychologists' help in fighting climatechange.
50.To find effective solutions to climate change, it is necessary to understand what motivates people to make change.
51.In their evolution, humans have learned to pay attention to the most urgent issues instead of long-term concerns.
52.One study shows that our neighbours' actions are influential in changing our behaviour.
53.Despite clear signs of global warming, it is not easy for most people to believe climate change will affect their own lives.
54.We should take our future into consideration in making decisions concerning climate change before it is too late.
55.Existing social networks can be more effective in creating change in people's behaviour.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section.Each passage is followed by some questions orunfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C.andD ).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on AnswerSheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
More than a decade ago, cognitive scientists John Bransford and Daniel Schwartz, both then atVanderbilt University, found that what distinguished young adults from children was not the ability toretain facts or apply prior knowledge to a new situation but a quality they called "preparation for futurelearning." The researchers asked fifth graders and college students to create a recovery plan to protectbald eagles from extinction. Shockingly, the two groups came up with plans of similar quality(although the college students had better spelling skills ). From the standpoint of a traditionaleducator, this outcome indicated that schooling had failed to help students think about ecosystems andextinction, major scientific ideas.
The researchers decided to go deeper, however.They asked both groups to generate questionsabout important issues needed to create recovery plans.On this task, they found large differences.College students focused on critical issues of interdependence between eagles and their hab/tats (栖息地).Fifth graders tended to focus on features of individual eagles ( "How big are they?" and "What dothey eat?" ).The college students had cultivated the ability to ask questions, the cornerstone of criticalthinking.They had learned how to learn.
Museums and other institutions of informal learning may be better suited to teach this skill than elementary and secondary schools.At the Exploratorium in San Francisco, we recently studied howlearning to ask good questions can affect the quality of people's scientific inquiry.We found that when
we taught participants to ask "What if?" and "How can?" questions that nobody present would knowthe answer to and that would spark exploration, they engaged in better inquiry at the next exhibit--asking more questions, performing more experiments and making better interpretations of their results.Specifically, their questions became more comprehensive at the new exhibit.Rather than merely askingabout something they wanted to try, they tended to include both cause and effect in their question.Asking juicy questions appears to be a transferable skill for deepening collaborative inquiry into thescience content found in exhibits.
This type of learning is not confined to museums or institutional settings.Informal learningenvironments tolerate failure better than schools.Perhaps many teachers have too little time to allowstudents to form and pursue their own questions and too much ground to cover in the curriculum.Butpeople must acquire this skill somewhere.Our society depends on them being able to make criticaldecisions about their own medical treatment, say, or what we must do about global energy needs anddemands.For that, we have a robust informal learning system that gives no grades, takes all comers,and is available even on holidays and weekends.
56.What is traditional educators' interpretation of the research outcome mentioned in the first paragraph ?
A.Students are not able to apply prior knowledge to new problems.
B.College students are no better than fifth graders in memorizing facts.
C.Education has not paid enough attention to major environmental issues.
D.Education has failed to lead students to think about major scientific ideas.
57.In what way are college students different from children?
A.They have learned to think critically.
B.They are concerned about social issues.
C.They are curious about specific features.
D.They have learned to work independently.
58.What is the benefit of asking questions with no ready answers?
A.It arouses students' interest in things around them.
B.It cultivates students' ability to make scientific inquiries.
C.It trains students' ability to design scientific experiments.
D.It helps students realize not every question has an answer.
59.What is said to be the advantage of informal learning?
A.It allows for failures.
B.It is entertaining.
C.It charges no tuition.
D.It meets practical needs.
60.What does the author seem to encourage educators to do at the end of the passage?
A.Train students to think about global issues.
B.Design more interactive classroom activities.
C.Make full use of informal learning resources.
D.Include collaborative inquiry in the curriculum.Passage Two
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
"There's an old saying in the space world: amateurs talk about technology, professionals talkabout insurance." In an interview last year with The Economist, George Whitesides, chief executive ofspace-tourism fu'm Virgin Galactic, was placing his company in the latter category.But insurance willbe cold comfort following the failure on October 31st of VSS Enterprise, resulting in the death of onepilot and the severe injury to another.
On top of the tragic loss of life, the accident in California will cast a long shadow over the future of space tourism, even before it has properly begun.
The notion of space tourism took hold in 2001 with a $ 20 million flight aboard a Russianspacecraft by Dennis Tito, a millionaire engineer with an adventurous streak.Just haft a dozen holiday-makers have reached orbit since then, for similarly astronomical price tags. But more recently,companies have begun to plan more affordable "suborbital" flights--briefer ventures just to the edge ofspace's vast darkness.Virgin Galactic had, prior to this week's accident, seemed closest to startingregular flights.The company has already taken deposits from around 800 would-be space tourists,including Stephen Hawking.
After being dogged by technical delays for years, Sir Richard Branson, Virgin Galactic's founder,had recently suggested that a SpaceShipTwo craft would carry its first paying customers as soon asFebruary 2015. That now seems an impossible timeline. In July, a sister craft of the crashedspaceplane was reported to be about half-finished.The other half will have to walt, as authorities ofAmerica's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA.and National Transportation Safety Board work out:what went wrong.
In the meantime, the entire space tourism industry will be on tenterhooks (坐立不安 ).The 2004Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act, intended to encourage private space vehicles andservices, prohibits the transportation secretary (and thereby the FAA.from regulating the design oroperation of private spacecraft, unless they have resulted in a serious or fatal injury to crew or.passengers.That means that the FAA could suspend Virgin Galactic's licence to fly.It could also insiston checking private manned spacecraft as thoroughly as it does commercial aircraft.While that may:make suborbital travel safer, it would add significant cost and complexity to an emerging industry thathas until now operated largely as the playground of billionaires and dreamy engineers.
How Virgin Galactic, regulators and the public respond to this most recent tragedy will determinewhether and how soon private space travel can transcend that playground.There is no doubt that space flight entails risks, and to pioneer a new mode of travel is to face those risks, and to reduce them.with the benefit of hard-won experience.
61.What is said about the failure of VSS Enterprise?
A.It may lead to the bankruptcy of Virgin Galactic.
B.It has a strong negative impact on space tourism.
C.It may discourage rich people from space travel.
D.It has aroused public attention to safety issues.
62.What do we learn about the space-tourism firm Virgin Galactic?
A.It has just built a craft for commercial flights.
B.It has sent half a dozen passengers into space.
C.It was about ready to start regular business.
D.It is the first to launch "suborbital" flights.
63.What is the purpose of the 2004 Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act?
A.To ensure space travel safety.
B.To limit the FAA's functions.
C.To legalize private space explorations.
D.To promote the space tourism industry.64.What might the FAA do after the recent accident in California?
A.Impose more rigid safety standards.
B.Stop certifying new space-tourist agencies.
C.Amend its 2004 Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act.
D.Suspend Virgin Galactic's licence to take passengers into space.
65.What does the author think of private space travel?
A.It is worth promoting despite the risks involved.
B.It should not be confined to the rich only.
C.It should be strictly regulated.
D.It is too risky to carry on.
Part IV Translation(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese intoEnglish.You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
Part ⅡListening Comprehension
1.W：I Was shocked to hear of your wife’s illness.Is she going to be all right?
M：A—t first,the doc—tors weren't sure,but she's really improved.一She’II be home next week.
Q：What do we learn about the man’s wife from the conversation?
D)。未听先知.四个选项的主语均为She，且出现了recovered，operation，critical condition，getting much better，故推测本题考查的内容与某位女士的身体状况相关。
2.M：Excuse me.Can I get a ticket for a sleeping compartment on this train?
W：Yes.There are four left.The price is 60 pounds per person，including a confrontal breakfast.
Q：What is the man doing?
3.M：Janet，here’s the book I borrowed from you，but I'm SO sorry that I can’t find its jacket.
W；It doesn’t matter.Anyway,you are one of the few people who actually return books to me.
Q：What does the woman imply?
4.M：Lisa，have you been to the new supermarket yet?
W：Yes，and n0.I went there last Saturday for their grand opening sale,but I drove around the parking lot f0r nearly an h0ur,looking for a space before I finally gave up and came home.
Q：What does the woman mean?
5.W：You’ve been sitting at the computer for hours.Let’s take a coffee break，shall we?
M：1 wish I could.You know,I'm up to my neck in work.I've got to finish this report.I don't want to missthe deadline.
Q：What does the man mean?
6.M：What do you think of this gallery space?They offered to let me exhibit some of my paintings here.W：Are you kidding?Any art student I know would die to have an exhibition here.
Q：What Can we infer from the conversation?
A)。未知先知.选项中出现了art students，gallery，paintings，exhibition layout等词，故推测本题考查的内容与在画廊展出作品相关。
7.W：Garry，my assistant is in hospital now.Is there anyone in your department can give a hand for a few days?
M：I think SO.I'll ask around and get back to you.
Q：what do we learn from the conversation?
8.W：Did you read the article in the paper about the mayor's speech at the economic forum?
M：—Sure I did,b—ut I think they twisted the meaning of what he said.一And it’s。not the first tiine for them to doSO.
Q：What does the man say about the paper’s article?
W. Oh, hello, John. Are you using your dictating machine this morning? I've got a long report I must dictate.Can I borrow your machine?
M: Of course. But can you spare me a second? (9-1) It's the message you sent to me about the delivery delayon the control desks. What's gone wrong?
W: Everything, John. (9-2) We have to get the steel sheets we need for these desks from new suppliers.Well,the suppliers have got some trouble or other. (10)They say they will be a bit later for the delivery.M：But they can’t be!These control desks are a special order.They are wanted for one of the big computercompmfies.It’s a very important contract.
W：When did we promise delivery?
M：On Thursday next week.And there’s a penalty’clause.We stand to lose lo percent of our price for each week of overdue delivery.
W：(11-1)Oh,these penalty clauses!Why did you sales people accept them?
M：(1l-2)We have to accept them,otherwise we don't get the contracts.
W：Well，let’s get on to the Buying Department.I only heard about the delay yesterday because we kept tlle production line clear to handle these special sheets.It’s a dreadful nuisance.
M：tt will be more than a nuisance.If we don’t meet on the delivery date，it will cost us a lot of money.
W：Keep caIin，John.(12)We can perhaps claim compensation from the steel suppliers for failure to deliver on time.That’ll offset the penalty clause.
9.Why did the woman send the message to the man?
10.What does the woman say about the new suppliers?
11.How did the man get the contracts?
12.What does the woman suggest they do?
M: Cathy, chaos theory seems to be a branch of physics or mathematics. (13) You are an economist, so howdoes it influence your work?
W: Well, in several ways. I'm responsible for financial development programmes in many parts of theworld, so forecasting long range trends and making predictions on the basis of present evidence is what Ido. (14) Chaos theory was developed by scientists trying to explain the movement of the planets andchanges in environmental conditions. Both of these things are also about making long term predictions onthe basis of present evidence.
M: Are many econonmists involved in this field?
W: An increasing number. In the 1990s, many economists began to look at chaos theory as a way of providingmodels for forecasting.
M: What kind of "models" are we talking about here?
W: Well, that's a good question. Because the basic idea of chaos theory is that there aren't any "models" as such-there aren't guaranteed forms, but rather patterns of change in development.
M: Doesn't that mean that forecasting is impossible?
W: No, but it certainly makes it more of a challenge, Mandelbrot, who did the experiment with stockexchange prices, for example, noted that although the outcomes were variable, there were in fact certainconstants. What we have to do is make sure we know what these are and take into account all the possiblevariables.
M: But do economics and finance work in the same way as weather conditions or the movement of planets?W: Well, no, of course not.There are certain underlying similarities. But we have to leave them for anothertime.
未听先知.预览三道题各选项，其中出现了Economist，financial health，Chaos theory，global econorniccrisis等词，可以判断对话是有关经济方面的，并涉及了混沌理论。
13.What is the woman’s profession?
14.What was chaos theory supposed to do when it Was first formulated?
15.What are the speakers mainly talking about?
People write to ask me if there's correlation between academic intelligence and emotional intelligence. Myanswer is no. You can have a high IQ and a high EQ, which, of course is a winning combination, or be highin one and low in the other. (16) The best study was done at Bell Labs in New Jersey, a very high IQ place.They do research in development for the communications industry. In the division of electronics engineers,who were designing equipment so advanced that they work in teams of up to 150, co-workers and managerswere asked to nominate the standouts--the stars in productivity and effectiveness. They came up with 10 or 15names, and that group of stars was compared with everyone else. It turned out there was no difference in IQ,no difference in academic qualifications, no difference in years on the job.(17) The only difference wasemotional intelligence. The stars were people who knew how to get along. He knew how to motivatethemselves, usually the kind of people you like to hang out with. When these people nm up against to atechnical problem, to which they have to turn to someone else for an answer, they e-mail and get the answerright away, because they built up networks of people before they needed them. The other people would e-malland walt up to two weeks for an answer. (18) So you can see how being good in the interpersonal reahnactually was a direct benefit, even for effectively pursuing a technical task.
未知先知.预览三道题各选项，由选项中的hard work，star engineers，job training，Devotion，interpersonalrelationships.working experience等词，可以推测短文与员工所具备的素质相关。
16.What does the speaker say about Bell Labs?
17.What categorizes the stars nominated at Bell Labs?
B)。详解.短文中提到，在电子工程部，人们提名的那些明星员工与普通员工相比，智商没有差别，学术文凭没有差别，工作年限也没有差别，唯一的区别表现在他们的情商上，故B)为答案。18.What does the speaker say contributes to effectively pursuing a technical task?
(19) Here's Biography of John Muir-John Muir's own writings to bring readers a life story of thisremarkable man who did so much to raise the America's awareness of environmental issues. As America's firstenvironmentalist, John Muir lived his life for ever daring for undertaking new adventures. He spent most of hisdays outdoors and had deep love for the wild lands. In the book, we meet John Muir as a youth fearlesslyclimbing the roof of his house. He captures birds only to let them go when he realizes the cruelty involved. He
becomes an inventor and sells his inventions in order to attend the .tmiversity. (20) As a young man, he beganwalking over tens of thousands of miles during his lifetime, through the south to Florida, the west to Californiaand north to Alaska, where readers are taken a long and particularly hair-raising adventure on a large mass offloating ice. Muir's learning in observation throughout his life led him to devote his last years to preserving thenatural environment. (21) His writing and speaking raised the awareness of the importance of conservationand helped bring about our national park system. Readers may feel they know John Muir after reading his storyand may catch his passion for preserving the riches of our land. The others' port,it of Muir's life is a testmonyto what it means to be lifelong learners and to use that learning to inform and bring about change.
19.What kind of book is the speaker introducing?
20.What do we learn about John Muir when he was young?
21.what did John Muir intend to do through writing and speaking?，C)。详解.短文中提到缪尔通过写作与演讲让人们意识到环境保护的重要性，也促成了国家森林公园体系的建立，故C)为答案.
Disaster movies often portray catastrophes that destroy, or at least threaten to destroy eaxthS entirepopulation. In fact, a virus emerged in the 1970s that could've been just that fatal. (22) Named after a riverthat passes through the Congo, the Ebola virus originally manifested itself in the interior of Africa in 1976.(23) Two strains of the disease, with almost identical symptoms, affected humans: Ebola Zaire and EbolaSudan. The Sudan version was deadly enough, killing 50% of those infected.However, Zaire with its90% mortality rate was even worse. The origins, though not the cause of Ebola Sudan, can be traced backto a single individual in a Sudanese town. Ebola Zaire seemed to erupt in over 50 villages simultaneously.(24) Both strains quickly invaded local hospitals when needles sharing and other unhealthy practices ensuredthe rapid spreading of the infection by bringing people into contact with contaminated body fluids. If the virushad been capable of spreading through the air, or if one infected person had unknowingly entered a largepopulation center, Ebola might have become a worldwide epidemic.However, soon after these fierceoutbreaks, the virus died out, at least temporarily. Ebola was so deadly and killed so quickly that within ashort period of time, there was no one around to infect. Hospital workers in at least one case deserted theirworkplace in panic, thus halting the administering of potentially unclean disease-spreading injections, butEbola has not disappeared. (25) With no known vaccination or cure available, it seems only a matter of timeuntil another epidemic erupts.
22.what is Ebola viras named after?
23.what do we learn about Ebola Zaire and Ebola Sudan?
A)。详解.短文中提到，人类感染的Ebola病毒有两种，分别是Ebola Zaire和Ebola Sudan，而且这两种病毒所导致的症状几乎完全相同，故A)为答案。
24.How did people get infected with the disease according to the speaker?
25.What does the speaker believe?C)。详解.短文末尾部分提到，Ebola病毒到目前为止，并没有消失，而且也没有找到合适的疫苗或是有效的治疗方法，因此，下一波病毒的爆发只是时问问题，即迟早还会爆发Ebola病毒，故C)为答案。
27.appear to be。详解.空格处应填入一个动词或系动词，与前面的would一同构成谓语，并连接后面的表语charming，stimulating，and easygoing。appear to be意为“看起来是，似乎是”。
31.take the initiative in。详解.空格处应填入一个动词或动词短语，作句子的谓语。take the initiative in意为“采取主动；主动提起”。
33.a degree of.详解.空格处应填入一个形容词或能对后面的名词进行修饰限制的短语。a degree of意为“一定程度的”。
34.simulated。详解.空格处应填人一个谓语动词，连接主语it和宾语the gradual changes。simulated意为“模拟，模仿”，由于这里用了虚拟语气，故用动词过去式。
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension
37.M)recommended。详解.该空格位于as之后，by sleep experts之前，可填入一个过去分词，表示“就像被睡眠专家所……的一样”，综合上下文考虑，可选择recommended，本句含义为“超过半数的美国成年人做不到睡眠专家所推荐的每晚7到9个小时的睡眠”。在备选项中debated及negotiated与上下文语义不符，故均排除。
43.L)ready。详解.该空格位于系动词is之后，动词不定式to endorse之前，可填入形容词，综合上下文考虑，应选择ready，be readyt0是固定搭配，意思是“乐意的，准备好的”。本句含义为“但是，刘教授并不愿意认可这种先是睡眠不足，然后再补觉的生活习惯”。备选项中只剩ready一个可选形容词。
46.When people find they ale powerless tochange a situation，they tend to live with it.译文.当人们发现自己无力改变一种情形时，就会选择去接受它。
47.To be effective.environmentalmessages should be carefullyframed.
48.It is the government’s responsibilityto persuade people into makingenvironment—friendly decisions.
49.Politicians are beginning to realise theimportance of enlisting psychologists’help in fighting climate change.
译文.政治家们开始意识到在应对气候变化时谋求心理学家帮助的重要性。定位.由题干关键词psychologists’help和fighting climate change定位到原文画线处。
50.To find effective solutions to climatechange，it is necessary to understandwhat motivates people to makechange.
定位.由题干关键词what motivatespeople，和make change定位到原文画线处。
51.In their evolution.humans havelearned to pay attention to the mosturgent issues instead of long—term Concerns.
定位.由题干关键词evolution，humans以及the most urgent issues定位到原文画线处。
52.One study shows that our neighbours’actions are influential in changing ourbehaviour.
53.Despite clear signs of global warming.it isnot easy for most people to befeve climatechange will affect their own fives.
定位.由题干关键词global warnting，most people和befeve定位到原文画线处。
54.We should take our future into consideration inmalting decisions concerning climate change before itis too late.
定位.由题干关键词making decisions和too late定位到原文画线处。
55.Existing social networkscall be more effective increating change inpeople’s behaviour.
定位.由题干关键词social networks 和creating change定位到原文画线处。
详解.段提到，尼克·帕克斯指出，使用现有的民间社会机构或网络能够更有效地创造变化，显然英国工会是最大的民间社会网络之一。题于中的can be more effective对应原文中的is a more effective way，故答案为[O]。
56.D)。定位.由题干中的traditional educators’interpretation定位到文章首段最后一句：From thestandpoint of a traditional educator，this outcome indicated that schooling had failed to help students think about ecosystems and extinction，major scientific ideas·
57.A)。定位.由题干中的college students，different和children定位到文章第二段第三句：0n this task，they found large difference.和第六句：The college students had cultivated the ability to ask questions，the cornerstone of critical thinking.
58.B)。定位。根据题干中的benefit of asking questions和no ready answers定位到文章第三段第三句：Wefound that when we taught participants to ask“What if?”and“How can?”questions that nobodypresent would know the answer to and that would spark exploration，they engaged in better inquiry atthe next exhibit--asking more questions，performing more experiments and malting betterinterpretations of their results.
59.A)。定位.由题干中的advantage和informal learning定位到文章第四段第二句：Informal learning environments tolerate failure better than schools.
60.C)。定位.由题干中的encourage educators和at the end of the passage定位到文章最后一段最后三句：But people must acquire this sldll somewhere.Our society depends on them being able to makecritical decisions about their own medical treatment，say，or what we must do about giobal energyneeds and demands.For that，we have a robust informal learning system that gives no grades，takesall comers，and is available even on holidays and weekends.
61.B)。定位.由题干中的failure和VSS Enterprise定位到文章首段最后一句：But insurance will be coldcomfort following the failure on October 31st of VSS Enterprise，resulting in the death of one pilotand the severe injury to another.和第二段：0n top of the tragic loss of life，the accident in Californiawill cast a long shadow over the future of space tourism，even before it has properly begun.
62.C)。定位.由题干中的the space-tourism firm Virgin Galactic定位到文章第三段第四句：Virgin Galactic had，prior to this week’s accident，seemed closest to starting regular flights.
63.D)。定位.根据题干中的the 2004 Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act定位到文章第五段第二句：The 2004 Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act，intended to encourage private spacevehicles and services，prohibits the transportation secretary(and thereby the FAA)from regulatingthe design or operation of private spacecraft，unless they have resulted in serious or fatal iaiury tocrew or passengers.
64.D)。定位.由题干中的FAA和the recent accident定位到文章第五段第三句：That means that the FAA could suspend virgin Galactic’s licence to fly.
65.A)。定位.由题干中的private space travel定位到文章最后一段最后一句：’Illere is no doubt thatspaceflight entails dsl(s，and to pioneer a new mode of travel is to face those risks，and to reducethem with the benefit of hard—won experience.
Part Ⅳ Translation
China is playing an increasingly important role in helping the international community to eliminate extreme
poverty by 2030.
Since the late 1970s, having implemented the reform and opening up policy, China has helped up to fourhundred million people out of poverty. In the next five years, China will provide assistance to other developingcountries in reducing poverty, developing education, agricultural modernization, environmental protection andmedical care.
China has made remarkable progress in reducing poverty, and has made unremitting efforts to promoteeconomic growth, which will encourage other poor countries to respond to the challenges of their owndevelopment. These countries can learn from the experience of China when they seek to develop their owncharacteristics.